Go forever in your life 【Travel in England】

The UK is the oldest capitalist power in the world and one of the places that travel lovers will want to see in their lifetime.

Boarding a British Airways flight at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport at 12:15 on June 11, 2014, all the way west to London. Although the flight time is more than ten hours, because the service on board is very good, I don't feel tired at all. About 15:00 London time (a difference of 7 hours from Beijing time) into the UK, it is such a scene looking out from the aircraft porthole.





The legendary London is the world-famous city of fog. Will today ’s sky be filled with fog? Soon the cityscape of London appeared outside the window. Although the weather was not very clear, the visibility was still very good.



London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), the largest city in Europe, and one of the most prosperous cities in the world. It is tied with New York, the United States, as the world's largest financial center. The plane flew over central London, with the Thames, buildings on both banks, bridges on the river, and the famous "London Eye" clearly visible.



London has been influential in the world for hundreds of years. Its outstanding achievements in the fields of politics, economy, humanities, entertainment, scientific and technological inventions have become the most important cities in the world. London is the political center of the United Kingdom and the headquarters of many international organizations. Taking a closer look with a telephoto lens, important buildings such as the Parliament Building, Big Ben, Westminster Abbey, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs are all vividly visible.



Landing at Heathrow International Airport at around 16:10 London time. London Heathrow International Airport is located 22 kilometers west of central London, at the southern end of the Hillingdon area, and is part of the London Green Belt. The airport runway is east-west, so the flight taking off and landing must fly over the urban area,

I woke up early the next morning and walked out of the hotel to see that there were blue skies and white clouds in the sky, and there was no feeling of being in the fog.

At the beginning of the 20th century, most Londoners used coal as a household fuel, producing a lot of smoke. These smog, coupled with the London climate, caused London smog, which is called London Fog (London Fog) in English. Therefore, English sometimes refers to London as "The Smoke" (London) and hence the name "Fog City".





Use the time before breakfast to wander around. Walked in under the sign of "WHITGIFT CENTRE" across the street from the hotel, and found that it was a small shopping mall. It's just too early, and there are not many customers in it.





"Greater London" refers to a large area including 32 London local administrative districts and the City of London, the total area of ​​about 1,500 The square kilometer is about the area surrounded by the M25 ring road. I once asked the tour guide, what is the name of the place where we live in English, failed to write down, only know that in the southwest of Greater London. From the perspective of streets and traffic, it should be regarded as a satellite city in Greater London.



I stayed here for a total of three nights, because I don't know the specific name, it seems a little mysterious. Using two mornings and twilight, I carried out a "exploration" in the vicinity to understand the situation of a common London community from a unique perspective. This is impossible for general group tours, and it is a little extra gain for a trip to London Right. ,



There is a tram stop in front of the hotel where we live. The English in front of the tram is "New Addington", and the translation software is translated as "New Addington". The English instruction in front of the stop sign is: "Wellesley Road", the translation software translates to "Wellsley College Road".





There is a traffic light not far along the front street of the hotel. From the intersection at the traffic light, turn into a small street and discover that this is an old town.



There is also a one-way streetcar on the streets of the town, and many people wait in front of the tram stop. The sign for the station is "George Street", translated as "George Street".



After a while, a train of trams drove. The English in front of the tram was "Wimbledon". The translation was a surprise. It turned out to be the famous "Wimbledon"! Is the tram going to the town of Wimbledon, famous for its tennis?



I came back online and found information about the London trams: London used to be full of trams. The coverage density of trams is much higher than that of the current subway. In 1952, all trams were eliminated, but in 2000, the "tram connection" was started. London Tramlink (English: London Tramlink), referred to as Tramlink, is a tram system located in South London and centered in Croydon. The London Tram Connection, a subsidiary of Transport for London, is responsible for management and daily operations. It has four operating routes, and New Addington- Wimbledon is one of the four operating routes. It is certain that the hotel we live in and the streets nearby belong to the Croydon area.



The Croydon area was developed based on the small town of Croydon. Croydon was once an old commercial town, and was placed in the southern suburbs of London due to the development of modern transportation. Since 1956, it has become the largest commercial, cultural center and office area in South London and an important residential area. Is this quiet town we see in the morning Croydon?



Because I do n’t know the name of the town, I always want to know where it is. I always look for signs that can identify it on both sides of the street. There is a stone tablet on the window of this ancient chapel on the street. Although it can be seen that there are words carved on it, it is a pity that the weathering is so severe that it is impossible to recognize what was engraved on it.



When I came back to search for pictures and travel notes of "Croydon Town", I only saw a night view picture similar to this photo in a travel note published in 2011. Most of the remaining pictures are different from those I took Therefore, it is not entirely certain that this is the town of Croydon, but at least it is a part of Croydon. This tramway may lead to the center of the town, but we do n’t have time to go.



I am not entirely sure whether this is "Croydon Town" or not. I wrote this travelogue with a somewhat mysterious feeling, and watching these photos has a somewhat more mysterious atmosphere.



Because I was very interested in this small town, it was dusk after returning to the hotel on June 13, and hurry up and go to the town to see what new discoveries. At this time there were people from the town street, especially in front of the bar, stepping out of it.



There is an old clock on this open-air garden beer shop with a "1884" mark on it. The time refers to 11:10, and it is now past 8:00 pm. After this clock stopped, the owner never moved it again, and used it as an antique decoration here.



After 8:00 pm in London, the sky is still dark, and the church beside the tramway can be seen clearly. Its appearance is very special, but there is no time to visit.



The town is already at the beginning of the Huadeng Festival. This section is a bustling commercial street during the day. Now, although there are not many pedestrians, there are buses that drive from time to time.



Evening glow has appeared in the sky, and a single-decker bus and a double-decker bus are driving one after another at the bus station.



There is a row of beautiful red buildings across the street, which looks a bit older.



There is a statue resembling the Virgin in front of the building, and the text under the statue can no longer be seen clearly. After translating the English on the lintel behind the statue, this building is roughly a bank.



The clock on the tall red clock tower on the "Bank" side indicates that it is 8:20 pm.



There is a monument under the bell tower, a cross directly above it, and the words "1914 1918 1939 * 1945" on both sides. There is a statue of a man and a woman on both sides of the monument, and a baby is held in the hand of the woman. It can be roughly seen from the English on the tablet that it was built to commemorate the Croydon who died and was injured during the two world wars.



The building behind the monument is more magnificent and should be the landmark of this town. I initially guessed whether it was a memorial to commemorate the two world wars. When I came back, I carefully looked at the photo of its main entrance and found that the word "1895" was on the door. This is about the construction year. What office building is the old office building in Croydon?



Not far from the red building, there is a small park, not many tourists are very quiet.



Looking towards the building in the park, I found some people gathering here on the lawn. This is a picture that can only be seen in foreign movies or TV. The British will really enjoy life!

After breakfast on June 12, 2015, take the coach for more than an hour to the first attraction in London-Buckingham Palace. Buckingham Palace is the main residence and office of the British monarch in London. The palace is located in the city of Westminster, London. It is one of the venues for national celebrations and royal welcoming ceremonies and an important tourist attraction. Buckingham Palace is a symbol of British kingship after the British bourgeois revolution. Every time in the history of British celebrations or crises in history, this is also an important meeting place for the British people.

The Buckingham Palace was named after the Duke of Buckingham in 1703, and was originally called Buckingham House. After being resold to the British royal family in 1761, after several repairs, it gradually became the British royal palace. Since 1837, all the kings of England have lived here. Queen Victoria was the first monarch to live here.

The first generation of Duke of Buckingham (1592--1628) was an important figure in the writer Dumas Ma's "Three Musketeers". He was the Prime Minister of Britain, the queen of France, and the lover of Princess Anna of Austria. After the death of its last descendant in 1703, Anna, the last queen of the Stuart dynasty, gave the title of Duke of Buckingham to John Schöfeld, Earl of Mulgrave. In 1761, the British royal family bought it for 21,000 pounds, and in the 150 years after it was purchased, the royal palace was built several times. The British monarch finally owns this supreme palace. The son of "Mad King" George III, later George IV, was the most arrogant and unruly monarch in British history. He built it magnificently and spent a total of 432,000 pounds, which is 20 times the purchase price of the building.





The main palace of Buckingham Palace is 110 meters long, and there are three subsidiary palaces on each of the other three sides. There are more than 600 halls including a concert hall, a concert hall, a banquet hall, and a gallery. In addition, it covers a vast royal garden with beautiful flowers. It is the five most famous palaces in the world with the Forbidden City, White House, Versailles and Kremlin. From the frontal appearance, I always feel that it is not as spectacular as imagined.



The entire Buckingham Palace is surrounded by transparent iron railings. It does not seem to have the style and solemnity of a general palace. The palace is only open to the public from August to September each year. When it is open, it is often difficult to obtain a ticket. It is best to apply for an appointment by phone. It is now June, and it is not open to the public. Looking at the British flag rising high from the top of the palace, the queen is in the palace today. Outside the iron fence, there are always many tourists peeking inward.



Looking inward through the gap of the iron fence, because it avoids the hustle and bustle of the crowd, it still seems to have some solemn style. Because in this direction, you can only see the main palace, but you can't see the attached palaces on the other three sides and the vast royal garden, so it doesn't feel very spectacular. If you can watch or enter the tour from another direction, you may have a different look and feel.



The famous Royal Guard soldier stood immobile in front of the palace. The British Royal Guard is an elite force in the British Army. Their dress is always the same scarlet tights and the tall bearskin hat, even on hot days.



The front door is magnificent, the golden decoration of the outer fence is solemn and solemn, and the reliefs of the heavy iron gates create a very harmonious atmosphere with the palace. From the gorgeousness of these reliefs, you can imagine the magnificence of Buckingham Palace. The European neoclassical architectural style of Buckingham Palace is very different from the architectural style of the Chinese Forbidden City, highlighting the different cultural origins of the two ends of the earth; the Forbidden City Palace is mostly known for its magnificent style. The ceiling and walls are carefully carved, which also shows the exquisite European architectural design.



There is a red square outside Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom. On this square on January 30, 1649, a well-dressed prisoner was executed. He was King Charles I who was sent to the guillotine during the British bourgeois revolution. After being defeated in the first British Civil War (1642-1645), Parliament hoped that Charles I would accept the constitutional monarchy. However, Charles I was obsessed, and he formed an alliance with Scotland, which led to the Second British Civil War (1648-1649). Charles I was defeated again, and then he was arrested, tried, convicted, and executed here for treason.



Attracted by a burst of cheers, I looked around and found a team of horses coming from the street beside Buckingham Palace. When passing the side entrance of Buckingham Palace, the leader salutes the palace, and the rest of the members pay attention. Is this the legendary British Royal Cavalry?



The British Royal Guard horse team is composed of a blue royal army and another Royal Forest Guard. Their military uniforms and horses have different colors. The cavalry in the Blue Royal Army or the Queen ’s Royal Forest Army must have the opportunity to join through strict screening. In fact, no. The cavalry of the cavalry is only an ordinary person before joining the army. They just joined the army as ordinary army soldiers, but were only assigned to After this, the corresponding training began. Regardless of whether or not you want to enter the cavalry squadron, everything you do must comply with the strict requirements here.



The uniform of the Royal Cavalry Team is very beautiful. Their mounts are strong and pure black horses. The horses of this team are brown. After telephoto, the knights seem to be female. Ask the tour guide to know that the original Queen of England was officially born on April 21, 1926. She also has an "official birthday", which is scheduled to be on the Saturday near June 11 every year, and is scheduled for June 14 in 2014. This horse team is a preview of an honor guard for the Queen's "Official Birthday" celebration.



There are forty horses in the British Royal Cavalry Battalion. They are strong and pure black horses. They are usually taken care of by 30 soldiers, and usually only officers can mount them. Traditionally, the military uniforms of the military barracks store their ceremonial uniforms and armor. Perform different tasks on different occasions and wear them differently. Rusted on the uniform is the emblem of Queen Elizabeth II. There are two pairs of drums made of sterling silver that are regarded as invaluable treasures. One of them is given to the blue royal army by King William IV. Each drum weighs 150 kilograms. A white horse is dedicated to riding. On the street not far from Buckingham Palace, I saw a Royal Cavalry Team.



Regardless of all leather goods used by soldiers or horses, a squad composed of only six people is responsible for the maintenance of the riding boots worn by the cavalry, the saddles for the horses, the reins, and the whip for the officers. Due to the strict military requirements of the horse team, there must not be any worn-out damage to the leather goods. The horses must be replaced with a new pair of horseshoes every four to six weeks. The cavalry must pay close attention to the state of the horse every time it is walking or training.

If you look at the ranks of these royal cavalrymen, you will understand what British royal style is.



The gates and columns around Buckingham Palace are funded with contributions from Australia, Canada and South Africa, and are carved with animals and patterns unique to each territory. Directly opposite the iron railing of the main building of Buckingham Palace, there is a square. In the center of the square stands the Queen Victoria Statue Monument. The overall layout of the Queen Victoria Memorial Statue has always been the most spectacular in London ’s urban planning.



At the center of the monument is the dignified and majestic Queen Victoria wearing a crown and holding a scepter. She has been in power for 63 years and seven months. She is the longest reigning British monarch and the longest reigning female monarch in the world. The Victorian era was a period of great expansion of the British Empire, and it was also the period of the fastest development of British industry, culture, politics, science and military affairs.





On top of the statue of Queen Victoria, the golden goddess of victory stands on a high marble platform, representing the royal family's hope to recreate the glory of the Victorian era.



On the throne of Queen Victoria, there are eight giant bronze statues guarding these eight bronze statues representing "progress" and "peace", "manufacturing" and "agriculture", "painting" and "building", "shipbuilding" and "respectively" war".



There is also the Queen Victoria Memorial Hall completed by the expansion of Edward VII on the square, and there is no time to see it. The Queen Victoria Statue Monument is a must-visit place for visitors to Buckingham Palace, and it is also a place that will definitely be photographed.



Buckingham Palace has witnessed the ups and downs of the British Empire for hundreds of years. Today ’s sunless kingdom is not as good as before, but “the thin and dead camels are bigger than the horses”. In the eyes of tourists, these splendid palaces and heroic royal forests are still Declare her strength. Today, in addition to the British royal family still having the meaning of calming people's lives, the traditional handover ceremony of many royal palace residences including the Buckingham Palace and the Guards in London also brings a lot of tourism value and benefits to the United Kingdom. The road by the square is always full of traffic and people are coming and going. Every street lamp pole is close to two British flags, which is also about the Queen's light.



Among the cars waiting for the traffic lights on the side of the square, a knight "stands up", is he an ordinary person, or does he have a special status? This is a rare sight in major cities of the world.



After a commotion, I saw a band of drums dressed in the uniform of the Royal Royal Forest Army passing by the square. There were also two escorts escorted one after the other, which was about part of the Queen ’s birthday celebration. It is a pity that when the camera is raised, they can only see their backs.



The square outside Buckingham Palace is next to St. James's Park, and our guide led us through this park to Downing Street. This is an open park with a history of more than 500 years, and it has the longest history in the Royal Gardens of London. It is said that the first place was originally a swamp, which was later obtained by King Henry VIII and built by James I. He ordered people to drain marshes and silt, build a forest garden landscape, raise tropical beasts such as camels, crocodiles, and elephants, and build bird cages in the south to house exotic birds.



There used to be a leprosy hospital named after Jesus' disciple St. James the Less, from which the name St. James came. To the west of the park is Buckingham Palace, to the north is the tree-lined road and St. James Palace, to the east is the Cavalry Guard Road, and to the south is the Birdcage Road. After entering the park, I felt very quiet.



In the middle of St. James ’s Park is a lake. There are various kinds of wild animals living in the lake. The swans and ducks in the park think they are the masters here. Shi Park is also known as a waterfowl rampant park. Greylag geese, swans, mandarin ducks, pelicans and seagulls may fly on the water or surround the tourists. There are also many small squirrels who will boldly ask for food from tourists. The noble white swan swims around the lake, ignoring the people walking nearby.



I hurriedly photographed a swan in the lake, and then photographed the swan resting on the shore. Under the urging of the tour guide, I was busy rushing to the road and had no time to photograph other waterbirds in the lake and on the shore.



Charles II was once in exile in France. The elegance and refinement of the French royal palace left a deep impression on him. After becoming king of England, he asked someone to redesign the park's style. The plan included a 775-meter long and 38-meter wide canal. Charles II entertained guests and mistresses here and opened the park to the public. There is a lake and two islands in the park, namely St. James Park Lake, West Island and Duck Island. There is a small bridge over the lake, looking west to the Buckingham Palace surrounded by forest springs, and looking east to the building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Federal Affairs.



From east to west in London, St. James's Park, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens are continuous, forming a chain-like large forest garden in the city center. In St. James's Park, the flowers are in bloom, the grass is luxuriant, the pool is rippling, the fountain is graceful, the grass is flat, and the ancient trees are towering. After the fountain in the lake, the building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Federal Affairs was bathed in sunlight, and its reflection was projected in the layers of ripples on the surface of the lake, intermittently, this picture is really beautiful!



The famous "London Eye" can be seen by the lake. The London Eye (The London Eye), located on the banks of the Thames in London, England, is a huge observation wheel and is one of London's landmarks and famous tourist attractions. Opened at the end of 1999, it is also known as the Millennium Wheel, with a total height of 135 meters (443 feet). The London Eye has a total of 32 passenger cabins (ranked from No. 1 to 33. There is no No. 13 because of religious taboos). Because the cabin is made of tempered glass, it is equipped with an air-conditioning system. Each cabin can carry about 25 passengers, the slewing speed is about 0.26 meters per second, that is, a lap takes 30 minutes. There is no arrangement for our itinerary to visit the London Eye, so we have to take a look here.



Going along the boulevard in the park, there are still some scenery worth watching on the roadside, but there is no time, most of them have to give up. Seeing this building across the road is a bit special, and it is a commemoration in St. James Park .



I just passed by in a hurry, and I couldn't talk about it at all. I couldn't even talk about it. There is a World War II monument in front of the park. It is said that there are several World War II monuments in London. It is impossible to see them all.



Opposite the entrance to St. James ’s Park is the Royal Cavalry Guard Parade Ground, where important official ceremonies such as the Queen ’s birthday are held every year. It is also home to the headquarters of the British military. The tall horse and the cavalry in the red shirt are a unique British landscape. In addition, the Olympic beach volleyball is also held here. The tour guide wanted to show us through, but the gate was closed and there was no one in the square. It was probably because the Queen ’s birthday celebration was being rehearsed internally, and he had to "come in for fun and return for defeat".



Instead of passing under the Royal Cavalry Guard building, we had to detour to Downing Street along the street between St. James Park and the Royal Cavalry Guard Parade. The buildings seen along the way are very beautiful, and most of them have a solid history. The street view is pleasing to the eyes and full of artistic beauty.



Looking back at the map, I found that the left side of the front row is behind the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Office building. A large stone ball on the street is engraved with peace pigeons, and a large piece of English is engraved on the back wall. monument. When I came back to check the information, I realized that this was the "Monument to the Victims of the Terrorist Attack in Bali".





Although the iron fence was set up for "anti-terrorism", the police guarding Downing Street were very friendly to the tourists who were peeping by the iron fence at the street entrance, and always smiled to meet the requirements of taking a photo with them. Most people who ask for a group photo are Chinese. Thinking about some of the scenes in front of the "Yamen" in the country, I feel very educated.



The White Hall (Tall Hall) outside the iron fence of Downing Street is a street in London, England, which connects the Parliament Building, Downing Street and Tejafara Square. There are some British government agencies such as the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Department of the Navy on and around this street, so people use Whitehall as a proxy for the British administration. There are some small side streets beside the Whitehall. This is the intersection of King Charles Street near Downing Street. This street gate and the sculptures on it show the profoundness of British history and culture.



In the center of Whitehall Road, a "Peace Monument" was erected, which was the main war memorial in Britain. Every year the Honor Army commemorates Sunday, a solemn memorial ceremony will be held. Both sides of the Whitehall are occupied by military buildings, including the headquarters of the British Ministry of Defence, the former headquarters of the British Army and the Royal Navy, the Royal Cavalry Guard and the Admiralty. There is also a bronze statue of the army commander-in-chief, Prince George and the Duke of Cambridge. Because there is no time, these buildings and monuments can not be viewed.



Not far from Downing Street, there was a "World War II Women's Monument", and I took a picture in a hurry. This monument was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II on July 9, 2005. The work was built to commemorate the British women who "can still deal with it calmly in so many bad situations".



Both sides of Baiting Street are mostly honest historical buildings, and the street view is pleasing to the eyes and full of artistic beauty. The exquisite and ancient buildings are mostly the seats of some national ministries. We can't go to watch on Whitehall Street, so we have to go along Parliament Street to the Parliament House in London. Capitol Street was originally a path to Westminster Palace. After the palace was burned down, the site was cleaned and rebuilt, and Capitol Street was widened. But the present appearance was rebuilt in the 19th century. The buildings on Parliament Street have a historical connotation of British style.



I don't know what state organ this building is? The red double-decker bus walking on the street in front of the building is very striking. The double-decker bus originated in the United Kingdom. The red double-decker bus walking in London, like Buckingham Palace, is regarded by the nostalgic British people as a symbol of the British country. , Is the "national treasure" of Britain. Red is the symbol color of London. Red double-decker buses and red telephone booths, red postboxes and black taxi-classic taxis are all landmarks of London and unique scenery of London.



What is the building behind the iron fence? Is it a church? From the style point of view, the architecture of London is still very different from the architecture of various countries on the European continent, and it feels especially a variety of different spire decorations.



Today, the weather in London is overcast and sunny. At this time, the white lines left behind by the plane flying in the blue sky and white clouds demonstrate the excellent air quality. From time to time, seeing all kinds of exquisite and beautiful buildings on the street, it is difficult to connect the "Fog City" with London in front of you. When I came back to check the information, I realized that this beautiful building is the Methodist Central Hall of Westminster and the conference center in the Westminster area.



There is a statue of Churchill under the shade of the street. He holds a cane in his hand and has a slight camel in his back, looking at the Big Ben and the Parliament building across the street. Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England in 1874. He served as the British Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955. He was regarded as one of the most important political leaders of the 20th century and led the British people to win the Second World War. Won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 and nominated for Nobel Peace Prize. In 2002, the BBC held a survey called "The Greatest 100 Britons." Churchill was selected as the greatest Briton of all time.



The London Parliament Building, also known as the Palace of Westminster, is the seat of the British Parliament (including the House of Lords and the House of Commons). Westminster Palace is located on the west bank of the Thames, close to other government buildings within the Whitehall. The Palace of Westminster is one of the masterpieces of Gothic Revival architecture and was listed as a world cultural heritage in 1987. The bell tower in the northwest corner is the famous Elizabeth Tower. As a symbol of the City of London and a symbol of Britain, the Elizabeth Tower is huge and gorgeous. This is the corner of the famous Elizabeth Tower and the Palace of Westminster seen across the street in front of the Churchill statue.



The famous Westminster Palace clock tower at the northeast corner of Westminster Palace is 96.3 meters (316 feet) high. The bell house at the top of the bell tower is a huge rectangular four-sided clock. The clock tower has 5 clocks and is the third-largest timepiece in England, weighing 13.8 tons. Big Ben has always been famous for its punctuality. The indiscriminate bombing of London by Nazi Germany during World War II also failed to destroy it. According to Greenwich Mean Time, every hour will be reported, and every hour will be hit. The sound of the report is deep and thick, and the sound of the bell can be heard several miles away. The entire tower is now officially named Elizabeth Tower. The Elizabeth Tower is an important place for people to celebrate the New Year, and its bells will be broadcast on the radio and TV to greet the beginning of the new year. On Memorial Day, the Elizabeth Tower bell sounded the beginning of the 11th hour and 2 minutes of silence on the 11th day of the 11th month.



The Elizabeth Tower originally only referred to the bronze bell in the clock tower, but later evolved to refer to the entire clock tower. The Elizabeth Tower was originally called Big Ben, and there are many sources for its naming. There is a saying that the name of the Big Ben comes from Sir Benjamin Hall. On June 2, 2012, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Big Ben officially changed its name to Elizabeth Tower.



The British Parliament Building is located on the banks of the River Thames in central London. It is the main Gothic building in Britain in the mid-19th century. The building is built on a nearly trapezoidal section of the Thames River. The main part is spread in parallel limbs along the north and south directions. The main facade is 273 meters long and faces the Thames River. The sections between the various parts are connected to form many inner courtyards, and the main halls in the building are in the middle of the building. The entire building covers an area of ​​3.5 hectares, with thousands of hall rooms, nearly one hundred stairs, and corridors leading to the various lows of the building, with a total length of 11 kilometers. The right part of the main facade is the palace of the speaker of the lower house. In front of the parliament building, because of the magnificent construction, the distance is too close to capture the whole picture of the Palace of Westminster and the clock tower. The photo taken on the plane overlooked. The magnification of this part is not high, but it may be slightly See the whole picture.



The seat of the Palace of Westminster was originally a royal palace. The royal palace was built in 1060 and has been continuously built since then. Until Henry VIII moved away in 1512, this was the royal palace. After the mid-16th century, the Palace of Westminster built along the Thames became the seat of Parliament. In 1834, a fire destroyed the palace building; reconstruction began in 1840 and was completed in 1860. The Victoria Tower in the southwest corner of the whole building is the tallest, with a height of 103 meters. In addition, the clock tower with a height of 97 meters is also very eye-catching. To see the panoramic view of the Palace of Westminster, Victoria Tower, and Clock Tower, you need to walk across the Westminster Bridge by the Elizabeth Tower, across the Thames River, or by boat on the Thames River. In order to shoot well. General group tours rarely have this opportunity.



In 1215, 18 barons formed an anti-kingdom organization, forcing King John (landless king) of Britain to sign the British Charter of Freedom, which laid the foundation for the constitutional constitution of the British monarch. A few years later, Baron Simon de Montford, one of the promoters of the opposition, initiated and convened the first British Parliament in British history. But for a long time, the Parliament did not have a fixed office space. It could only be held in the old Westminster Great Lobby or with the monks of Westminster Abbey. It was only in 1547 that the British Parliament had its own fixed office in the old St. Stephen ’s Chapel in the former Westminster Palace, which was the main palace of the former King of England in the 16th century.



Today's palace was basically rebuilt from the 19th century and still retains many historical sites from the time of its initial construction. There have been many major events in British history: Richard II was deposed, Charles I was sentenced to death, and Cromwell was declared the protector of the country. There have also been many court banquets and coronation ceremonies. This picture is very interesting: on top of the modern car group, an ancient knight wielded a long sword, imitating Tang Jikuide and fighting with modern civilization. Judging from the English on the base, this statue seems to be Richard II.



There is a statue in front of the Palace of Westminster not far from the Elizabeth Tower. The English translation on the base is "Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658". In 1642, the British Civil War began, and the army was reorganized in 1645, defeating the royal army. On January 30, 1649, King Charles I was executed in the name of Parliament and the army. In May, the United Kingdom was declared the Republic. In 1688, the "Glorious Revolution" broke out in Britain, welcoming the daughter of James II and his husband William, the Dutch governor. The Bill of Rights was promulgated in 1689. Established the foundation of constitutional monarchy. From then on, the power of the Parliament was higher than that of the king.



Today ’s Palace of Westminster was basically rebuilt from the 19th century, but it still retains many historical monuments from its initial construction, such as the Westminster Hall (which dates back to 1097), which is used today as a major public Celebrations, such as the display before the state funeral. The opening hours of the Palace of Westminster are: 9: 20-16: 30 on Saturday, 13: 20-17: 30 on Monday, and 9: 20-17: 30 from Tuesday to Friday. It's a pity that our team didn't make arrangements and could only take a quick look at the street.



This ancient church has a magnificent structure and splendid decoration, and its appearance is a cross shape built in Latin style. The main entrance of the church to the west is composed of two square towers made of all stone structures. It was designed by the students of St. Paul's church designer Rennes in the 18th century. The twin towers are very spectacular. The main part of the church is 156 meters long and 22 meters wide. There is a side gallery on each side of the hall, with a spacious gallery above. Westminster Cathedral is one of the most majestic and magnificent churches in the world. It has a grand and solemn appearance, beautiful and exquisite decoration, the whole building is magnificent and quiet and solemn.



Between 1220 and 1517, successive British kings continued to expand and rebuild the church, making every effort to make it look more magnificent. But in 1540, the United Kingdom broke with the Holy See, and Westminster Abbey was closed. In 1579 Elizabeth I reopened the church, but completely eliminated the Catholic power, put the jurisdiction back to the royal family, managed by the king ’s directly appointed dean, and translated the Bible into English here. The church is open to the outside and generally enters and exits through this north gate.



The north gate of Westminster Abbey is different from many churches in continental Europe. Its sculptures are very beautiful, and the decoration on the middle gate is so brilliant.



Westminster Abbey enjoys the supreme status in the United Kingdom. It is the exclusive chapel of the British royal family, the coronation church of almost all British kings since 1066, and the royal wedding church. All major ceremonies of the royal family are held here. In the 16th and 18th centuries, Westminster was an academic center with the same reputation as Oxford and Cambridge. The English version of the Bible was translated here.



From a certain point of view, Westminster is really a British royal cemetery, where too many British monarchs are buried, plus writers, scientists, Royal Air Forces, and unknown martyrs who came in later, buried 3000 With many princes, nobles and celebrities, Westminster's underground is really a collection of heroes. These include Newton, Darwin and Churchill. Therefore Westminster Abbey is also known as the "spire of honor". In 1987, Westminster Abbey was included in the World Cultural Heritage.



Westminster Abbey is actually a piece of British history. Here there is the rise and fall of Britain, where the blood and tears of Britain are recorded, and the sinking and glory of Britain are buried here. Westminster is a British royal history book made of stones. It is the essence of architecture condensed with wisdom. This is the memory left to the world by those who are remembered and forgotten by history. Therefore, some people say: You can not see other attractions in London, Westminster Cathedral must go and see. However, we did not have time to visit.



Although the architectural style and characteristics of Westminster Abbey continued to change during the marathon construction period, from Norman style, Gothic style, to the early Renaissance style, but its basic characteristics still belong to Special style, so after more than 700 years of repairs, it can still maintain its original appearance, thanks to those great architects. Looking at the church from different angles on the street, there is a statue beside the church. The English under the statue indicates that he is George V. On June 23, 1911, King George V of the United Kingdom was crowned at Westminster Abbey in London. This coronation ceremony symbolized the continuation of the British monarchy tradition.



Westminster School is located next to the Cathedral and the Parliament. This is an ancient school dating back to 1179. It has been famous since the 17th century and is now one of the most famous schools in Britain. The school respects academics, individuality and individuality. The school ’s teaching is spiritual, and more than one-third of graduates go to Oxford and Cambridge to study after graduation. The school has a unique location and there are many beautiful buildings.



You can enter Westminster School through this door, and we can only look outside.



The National Museum (British Museum), also known as the British Museum, is commonly known as the British Museum. Russell Square, located on the north side of New Oxford Street in London, England, was established in 1753. It was officially opened to the public on January 15, 1759. It is the world ’s oldest and most magnificent comprehensive museum. It is also the world ’s largest and largest One of the famous museums, together with the Louvre Museum in Paris and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, is named as the three major museums in the world. After lunch on June 12, 2014, I went to the world-famous British Museum.



The museum collects many cultural relics and treasures from all over the world, as well as manuscripts of many great scientists. The rich collection and variety of collections are rare in museums all over the world. Entering the museum is the "large atrium", perhaps inspired by the successful experience of the Louvre ’s new glass pyramid. The most famous high-tech architect in the UK, Foster, designed a glass lighting cover for the original open-air large atrium. Turn this outdoor atrium with extremely low utilization rate into a hub for many tourists. The original winding tour route became clear and compact.



The Great Court of the British Museum is located in the center of the British Museum. It was opened in December 2000 and is currently the largest covered square in Europe. The top of the square is composed of 1656 strangely shaped glass sheets. In the center of the square is the reading room of the British Museum, which is open to the public. The National Museum of England is also famous for its library. This is the main place where Marx collected materials and writing for his monumental work, "On Capital". Many visitors came to find the seat that Marx used to sit in.



The British Museum includes the Egyptian Museum, the Greek and Roman Museum, the West Asian Museum, the European Medieval Museum and the Oriental Art Museum. Among them, the collections of the Egyptian Museum, the Greek-Roman Museum and the Oriental Art Museum are the most eye-catching. Rosetta Stone and Yani's Book of the Dead are the treasures of the town hall. It has more than 7 million pieces of collections, more than 100 showrooms, covering an area of ​​60,000 to 70,000 square meters. If every showroom is carefully watched, some people estimate that it will take four or five days, and our visit time is only one and a half hours. The tour guide took us to the China Pavilion in the Oriental Art Relics Museum, and then set a time to gather here for free visit. The larger area of ​​the China Pavilion displays porcelain.



Hall 33 of the British National Museum is a permanent exhibition hall dedicated to displaying Chinese cultural relics. It is one of the few country-specific exhibition halls of the museum, like the exhibition halls of Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and India. Various kinds of porcelain are common in domestic museums, and time is limited, so they have to skip it in a hurry. I feel that many of them are rare in China.







The Chinese cultural relics in the China Pavilion include the entire Chinese art category: ancient stoneware, bronzes from the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, stone scriptures from the Wei and Jin Dynasties, calligraphy and paintings from the Tang and Song Dynasties, and porcelain from the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Can be described as complete categories, beautiful. Many museums have been visited in the country, and most of the exhibits here seem to be familiar, however, this large-scale exquisite colored porcelain statue was seen for the first time.



I thought it was Tang Sancai, but it didn't feel like it. When I came back to check the information, I realized that they were called "Liao Sancai". Liao Sancai is a low-temperature color glazed pottery product produced in Liao Dynasty. The three colors of Liao Sancai mostly use yellow, green and brown glazes. Among them, the firing volume of the Chifeng cylinder kiln is relatively large. The burnt three-color glaze pottery has a soft and light reddish glaze and the glaze is delicate and smooth. Influenced by Tang Sancai, Liao Sancai is comparable to Tang Sancai. The difference from Tang Sancai is that apart from the different soils, the main reason is that there is no blue color in Liao Sancai, the glaze does not blend, and the glaze rarely flows. There are both Buddhist Maitreya and Taoist Taishang Laojun.



The British Museum adheres to the principle of practicality-the collection should be open to the public and free admission. This principle is also based on an enlightenment idea, that although there are differences between human cultures, they can understand each other through communication with each other. The museum used to be a platform for human cross-cultural research.

It is said that this is a model of a temple made during the Qianlong period, very delicate.

The collections from China in the exhibition halls of China and South Asia have always been the most favored by the British Museum. The exhibits span the 5000-year history of China. From the Stone Age to the Qing Dynasty, all generations of precious cultural relics are displayed here, in addition to Exquisite exhibits from South Asia such as India. After rushing through the China Pavilion, I saw some Indian Buddha statues.



Ancient Egyptian art is the most prestigious collection of the British National Museum. Ramses II ’s enthusiasm for massive civil engineering has left his traces everywhere in Egypt: he built many temples in Abidos and Ramessem; added new structures to the temples of Karnak and Luxor ; The Abu Simbel Temple, famous for its grandeur, was built. Ramses II was one of the most important pharaohs in the history of Egypt. However, the era of his rule was the eve of the decline of Egypt, and the huge expenditure of the country accelerated the decline of the national power. After Ramses II died, Egypt began to decline. While sightseeing in Egypt, I saw Ramses II's statue everywhere, and the most conspicuous thing when I walked into the Egyptian Pavilion was its statue.



The Egyptian Antiquities Museum is the largest exhibition hall among them. There are more than 70,000 ancient Egyptian cultural relics, representing the high civilization of ancient Egypt. The Ancient Egyptian Pavilion on the second floor mainly displays the funeral culture of Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian mummies are probably the most well-known and popular collection at the British Museum. There are about 80 complete or nearly complete human mummies and other funeral supplies kept with them.



In the glass cabinet, there is a mummy, some of which have been opened in a corpse state, and some gauze are still intact. In order to prove that Sapuri's head was really wrapped in a mummy, an X-ray photo of the mummy was also placed next to it.



The fully opened mummy looked like a corpse. It was a little scary. Thinking about his gorgeous shell, it felt really ruthless.



The Egyptians made mummies because they believed that after death, the soul would return to the body to resurrect and enter the eternal kingdom, so the corpse must be properly preserved. This is probably a couple. Although the appearance of his wife is still bright after thousands of years, but they have just seen the mummy's body completely opened, and their original wish could not be realized.



In the Egyptian Cultural Relics Museum, you can only hurried by, so you must hurry to the West Asian Cultural Relics Museum. I am very unfamiliar with the history and culture of West Asia, but when I was studying the history of high school in the middle school, I knew that there were "two civilizations", Babylon, and the Persian Empire in West Asia. A large part of the cultural relics in the West Asia Pavilion also seem to be funeral culture.





This sarcophagus is very similar to the coffin of the Han and Tang Dynasties in China.



These are very similar to Egyptian mummies, except that their appearance is different from that of Egypt and has the characteristics of West Asians.



There are some large and small statues, small pottery figurines similar to those unearthed in China, because they are unfamiliar with the history of Western Asian civilization, and do not understand the English introduction. The statues are very beautiful.



There are also some lifelike avatars, although I ca n’t understand the English descriptions under each avatar, knowing that each of them must contain a wonderful historical story.



I don't know if these avatars are part of a statue, or that they were specially made by Gucia people.



Some glass cabinets display some daily necessities of the Gucia people, and English instructions are also displayed in the cabinets.



The mask placed in the glass cabinet must be very precious.



It took a while to walk around in the West Asia Pavilion. It was almost time to gather at the watch. I hurried to the meeting place of the China Pavilion. I saw some exquisite exhibits along the way and hurriedly photographed them. This must be a famous statue from the Greek or Roman period.



The Greenwich Royal Observatory is a comprehensive observatory built by King Charles II of England in Greenwich in 1675. It is located on a hill overlooking Green River Thames in Greenwich Park. The whole (Greenwich Park), including the Old Royal Observatory, (Navigation Museum), Greenwich Pier, and the whole area, was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. After breakfast on June 13, 2014, the coach entered Greenwich Park at approximately 9:00 London time.



After the Royal Observatory was removed, it was converted into the Royal Naval Academy and the National Maritime Museum. At the end of the entrance, there is a statue of General James Wolfe at the Greenwich Observatory, facing the old Royal Naval College and Greenwich Pier. The statue base reads: "Victory of Quebec". He was a heroic sacrificed general in the Battle of Anglo-French Quebec and had nothing to do with the Greenwich Observatory.



The Greenwich Royal Observatory is located in the city of Greenwich in southeast London. It was built by King Charles II of England in 1675 to provide astronomical observation and navigation services for seafarers. After World War II, the observatory was moved to Sussex, and the former Greenwich Observatory site became the British Maritime Department and the National Maritime Museum Observatory. Now it has become a popular tourist attraction and astronomy education base. The meridian line is located here. In 1997, the site of the Greenwich Observatory was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.



Now, the Old Royal Observatory is part of the National Maritime Museum, a museum of astronomy and nautical tools, including the famous John Harrison award-winning nautical clock H4 and his three previous finished products. Several other artificial timers that have historically provided precise punctuality for astronomy and navigation are also on display, including the Soviet-made Fedchenko clock in the mid-20th century, and the 28-inch refracting telescope made by Gruber in 1893. The clock on the outer wall of the gate of the observatory was an early electronic clock.



On the ground of the observatory's courtyard, there is also a "primary meridian". In 1884, astronomers from more than 20 countries in the world held a meeting in Washington, DC, and formally determined that the meridian passing through the astronomical center of the observatory was the meridian of zero degrees (primary meridian). 180 degrees. Every 15 degrees is a time zone, and adjacent time zones differ by 1 hour. In the courtyard of the Greenwich Observatory, there is a line of concrete inlaid with copper strips, and the marble next to it is engraved with the bold "Greenwich Meridian" (the original meridian), indicating that the earth is divided into two halves here. The prime meridian is the starting point of the world's calculated time and geographic longitude.



The longitudes of major cities in the two hemispheres are marked on both sides of the famous world prime meridian. It is always crowded with people. The favorite thing for visitors is to take pictures on both sides of this famous longitude meridian, which means that small humans can also step on the two hemispheres of the earth at the same time!



The world famous Greenwich Observatory was built in 1675. At that time, the British nautical career developed rapidly. In order to address the need to measure longitude at sea, the British authorities decided to establish an observatory in the Royal Greenwich Gardens on the Thames, about 20 kilometers from the southeast suburbs of London. After 1835, the Greenwich Observatory was extended and updated under the leadership of the distinguished astronomer Eric. He pioneered the use of the "meridian ring" to determine Greenwich's mean solar time.



With the development of the world's navigation industry, many countries have successively established observatories to determine local time. Internationally, in order to coordinate the measurement of time and determine the geographical longitude, it was decided to pass the longitude at the time of the Greenwich Observatory's Airy Star as the standard reference longitude for global time and longitude measurement, known as the 0 ° longitude or the prime meridian. Since then, not only maps published by various countries have used this line as the starting point of geographic longitude, but also used the Greenwich Observatory as the starting point of the "world time zone", using Greenwich timing instruments to calibrate the time.



On December 28, 1999, a new time system, Greenwich Electronic Time (GET), was officially placed on the wall of the observatory house passing through the prime meridian. It provided a time standard for global e-commerce. The Greenwich time will still be retained. To commemorate the former glory, there is still a red sphere on the roof of the three-story small building in Greenwich. At 13:00 GMT every day, this time ball will drop on time. The ship on the Thames used this to match the watch.



The Meridian courtyard also houses some astronomical instruments used in the past for visitors to watch.



After putting coins in this telescope by the iron fence, you can enjoy a panoramic view of the city of London.



On the brick wall next to the gate of the observatory, a 24-hour clock is set, and the time it indicates is the "Greenwich Mean Time" common to all countries in the world. In Greenwich, visitors can adjust their watches to the most standard time in the world.



The astronomical center was built between 1891-1899. It was originally used to store instruments, books and related records of the Royal Observatory. It is also a place for scientific researchers to work. The top of the dome has three large equatorial telescopes. Now there are various interactive exhibitions of cosmic exploration, divided into "cosmic inspiration", "cosmic exploration" and "cosmic mystery", which are very informative and interesting.



The first floor houses instruments and clocks from the 18th and 19th centuries. Royal astronomers use them to observe celestial bodies passing through the meridian and compare and record them. The accuracy is very high. On the second floor is an exhibition called "Time and Society", which explores the changes in the method of measuring time in history and shows various types of timekeeping tools from sundial, astrolabe to modern watches.





In the theodolite hall, there was originally used to measure the longitude and azimuth of celestial bodies, and now it is used to store equatorial telescopes and solar cameras. Going up the spiral staircase, you will see the famous 28-inch telescope. It is the largest refractive telescope in Britain and the seventh largest in the world. This equatorial telescope can observe and track most objects in the sky.



The background music playing in the room where the telescope is placed is said to have started on December 31, 1999. The melody will be placed on December 31, 2999 without interruption and is the longest music in the world.



In the glass box of the showroom, there are also some items used on early ships.



In a small building, hundreds of years of astronomical observation history are condensed, so it is worthwhile to spend an hour and savor the human journey to find time.



Above the observatory, I saw a large cylinder placed on the track in the courtyard, and I wonder what the astronomical instrument is for.



Walking out of the astronomical center in the courtyard, you can see its huge circular dome for astronomical observation. How many mysteries of the universe have humans ever discovered under that circular dome.



The small garden between the courtyards is a good place for tourists to relax.



This thing in the courtyard was originally thought to be a sculpture. Look carefully. It turned out to be a beautifully shaped sundial, with a small grid every ten minutes and a large grid every half an hour.



During the visit, I saw groups of middle school students in London. Greenwich Observatory is probably their main base for learning astronomy.



Cambridge is a place name combined with transliteration and free translation. English Cam—bridge means the bridge of Jianhe. There is a Jianhe River here, and a large circle in the city flows northeastward. Many bridges were built on the river, so the city was named Cambridge. Cambridge, also known as Cambridge. Speaking of Cambridge, the general idea is the world-famous Cambridge University. In fact, Cambridge itself is an English town with about 100,000 residents. After visiting Greenwich on June 13, 2014, I came to Cambridge at two o'clock in the afternoon. The coach passed through the city of Cambridge and stopped by the River Cam. After getting off, I saw the famous King's College church on the other side of the church. The teaching building of the college.



Cambridge University has 31 colleges, three women ’s colleges, and two specialized graduate schools, each with its own style. The biggest feature of Cambridge University is the college system. The Central University of Cambridge only plays a role like the federal government, in charge of some macro matters. King ’s College is one of the most famous colleges in Cambridge University. Its church is 88 meters long, its supporting span is 12 meters, and its dome is 24 meters high. It is the most majestic landmark in Cambridge. The narrow creek beside the road is green on both sides.



Not far away, a door crosses the small river. The British tour guide said that this is the back door of King's College. From here, you can buy a ticket to enter and cross the campus from the main entrance to the King Walk in Cambridge.



King's College (King's College) is one of the most famous colleges in the University of Cambridge. It was founded in 1441 and was established by the then King Henry VI of the United Kingdom, hence the name "King's College". In order to show the great financial strength of the king, the college has been pursuing magnificent buildings since its establishment. The most famous of its complex is the King ’s College Chapel. Its minarets and magnificent Gothic architecture have become the entire city of Cambridge. Logo and glory. The entrance to King ’s College is on the King ’s Walk in Cambridge. The entrance is a majestic 19th century Gothic gatehouse.



The King's College Chapel in the college is a typical representative of Cambridge's ancient architecture. It was designed by Henry VI himself and took nearly 100 years to complete in 1547.



King's College is known for its courage to innovate. It is said that there is no need to wear a black academic gown at the formal dinner, no high table specially set up for the instructors, and no need to stand upright when the instructors enter. Because people think that what these mentors worthy of respect is their knowledge, not their costumes and manners.



Leave the parking lot and walk towards the city of Cambridge, passing by a bridge with Mill Pier, where the Jian River drifts. The Qing Jian River is small and gentle, winding through the city, and it connects most of the ancient colleges with long history. You can take a glimpse of the ancient buildings and styles of major colleges and universities in the shortest time by riding this flat-bottom wooden boat on the River Cam. Generally, it takes at least a full day to visit Cambridge. It is best to stay here for one night. We depart from London in the morning and arrive in Cambridge after visiting Greenwich. In the afternoon, we will return to London in two or three hours. In Cambridge The tour time is very short, there is no time to take a boat.



What I saw through the iron fence at Qiaotou was Queen's College. Queen ’s College is located on the south side of King ’s College. It was founded in 1448 by Queen Margaret of Henry VI and Woodville, Queen of Edward IV in 1465.



The famous math bridge in Queens College can be seen very clearly on the bridge. The Mathematical Bridge spans the Jian River, connecting the Queens College campuses on both sides of the Jian River. Mathematical Bridge is its unofficial name, its official name is just "Wood Bridge". It shows the prototype of the modern steel girder bridge, and the adjacent truss of the bridge body forms an angle of 11.25 degrees. In the 18th century, this design was called a geometric structure, so this bridge was named "mathematical bridge". Designed by William Etheridge and built by James Essex in 1749. The Mathematical Bridge was rebuilt in 1866 and 1905, but the original design has not changed.



The legend of this wooden bridge was built by Newton. He designed it using mathematical mechanics. Those seemingly irregular and inadvertent triangles, rectangles, and rhombuses were built by Newton through careful planning and calculation on the design paper. A nail. However, a curious student later dismantled the bridge for research, but could not put it back as it was, so he could only rebuild the bridge with screws. . . In fact, this story is false, because the Mathematical Bridge was built 22 years after Newton's death. The real situation is that the bridge was connected with iron nails at the earliest. It is not obvious. Now the newly built one uses screws. The bridge did indeed appear to have been opened by a curious student and then reinstalled.



There are often flat-bottom wooden boats coming and going under the mathematics bridge. It is said that most of their boatmen are students of Cambridge University. The boatmen will also explain every time they pass through a college.



The Queen ’s College stands across the Jian River and is connected by the world-famous “mathematical bridge”. The Queen ’s Garden on the west side of the Jian River, with its flowers and willows, and its verdant garden, is one of the most beautiful scenery in Cambridge. The main landscapes in the Queen ’s College include the Tudor atrium represented by the wooden campus cloister in the mid-16th century, Erasmus Tower built in the 15th century, and the old chapel. The famous Renaissance theologian and thinker Erasmus and the famous poet White are Queens College alumni.



Queen's College is free from November to March of the following year, and at other times it is £ 1.50 (including a Queen's College guidebook). No time, no entry, we can only look at the appearance.



Cambridge is the capital of Cambridgeshire and the seat of Cambridge University. As early as two thousand years ago, the Romans had camped in this place, about 90 kilometers from London, and stationed troops. Nonetheless, in the long years, Cambridge was just a rural market town. It was not until the establishment of Cambridge University that the name of this town became known. To visit Cambridge, in addition to seeing the world-famous Cambridge University, sightseeing in Cambridge is also a main content. After a short stay on the bridge, he walked towards Cambridge.



From the River Cam to Cambridge, there is a narrow alleyway, with people coming and going, mostly tourists. Many medieval buildings are preserved in Cambridge. The bricks and tiles here seem to tell the ancient past.



The streetlights on the street still retain the shape of the Middle Ages, and they still light up during the day.



A row of tall fireplace chimneys on the roof beside the alley expresses the traditional characteristics of the ancient Britain.



Cambridge, like Oxford, is a fascinating traditional university city. Cambridge University's achievements in the natural sciences are particularly outstanding, nurturing Newton, Darwin and other masters of science who have created a new era of science. 88 Nobel Prize winners came from this school. People admired Cambridge as "the cradle of natural science". Although Cambridge is as famous as Oxford and is a world-famous institution, the atmosphere here is different from Oxford. Oxford is called "there is a city in the university" and Cambridge is the "there is a university in the city". After entering the King's Trail from the alley, one by one colleges lined up on the street, really "there are universities in the city."



The University of Cambridge was established in 1209. It was first established by a group of scholars who had escaped from Oxford to avoid fighting. King Henry III granted Cambridge a monopoly on teaching in 1231. Cambridge University and the University of Oxford (University of Oxford) are both called the two best universities in the United Kingdom, collectively known as "Oxbridge", is one of the ten universities in the world.



The King's Parade starts in front of the King's College, which is enough to show the invaluable status of this college. There is a narrow lawn beside the gate of the college, and the lawn is separated from the street by a strip of stone. On the other side of the street are some shops and bars. There are no cars passing by on the street. There are many pedestrians. Some people sit on the stone bars and relax.



The decoration and sculpture on the outer wall of King's College are exquisite. "Farewell to Kangqiao", a new poem by Xu Zhimo, a modern poet from China's famous Crescent School: "Gently I left, just as I came gently. I gently waved and made the clouds of Biexitian." , Placed in King's College. Xu Zhimo Poetry Festival was also held at King's College on August 7, 2015.



Cambridge University is actually just a loosely organized consortium of colleges. Each college is highly autonomous, but all abide by the unified Cambridge University Charter, which is drafted and passed by the university ’s legislative body and is revised every year. Cambridge University is only responsible for examinations and degree awards, and the specific criteria for enrolling students are determined by the colleges and recruit students. The main entrance of King's College went a little further and saw a lawn and a building through the iron fence. I came back and found that this is Senate House.



"Senate house" means the Senate Chamber, which is about the Senate of the University of Cambridge. The main significance of this place to Cambridge University is to hold a graduation ceremony. Every month except August, September, and December, Cambridge University hosts a graduation ceremony on the third Saturday (three in June). The graduation ceremony in Cambridge is much simpler than in Oxford, but compared to other schools, it is still very atmospheric. This big tripod on the lawn is very special, I do not know what the symbolic meaning is.



Trinity College is not far from the gates of King ’s College. Trinity College is named after the Catholic Trinity concept, which is one of the largest, most financially well-known colleges in Cambridge University. There are about 600 college students, 300 graduate students and 180 professors. At the same time, it also has the most beautiful buildings and courtyards in Cambridge University. Trinity College was founded by King Henry VIII of England in 1546, its predecessor was Michael College established in 1324. The church of Trinity College was built by Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII, in 1554, and the interior of the entire church could not be completed until the 18th century. The front hall of the church is decorated with jade statues of famous graduates from Trinity College, including Newton, Bacon, Tennyson and others.



So far, the college has produced 32 Nobel Prize winners. Famous graduates include Newton, Bacon, Byron, Whitehead, Russell, Wittgenstein and others. There is a statue of Henry VIII at the entrance of the college gate. The majestic king holds a golden ball with a cross on top in his left hand, but he holds a chair leg in his right hand. It is said that Henry VIII originally held a golden scepter symbolizing kingship in the right hand. The statue was soon completed. I do n’t know which students who played pranks quietly climbed up and pulled out the scepter. This chair leg replaced it. The strange thing is that for hundreds of years, no one has been in charge of it.



In the middle of the green lawn on the right side of the gate, there is a leafy apple tree. It is said that an apple from the distant ancestor of this tree fell on Newton's head hundreds of years ago when he was thinking about Kepler revealing Where does the centripetal force in the three laws of the planet come from, which inspired him to discover the law of gravity. Trinity College is surrounded by buildings on the King's Walk, and there is no view of the interior. This college can also buy tickets to enter the tour, almost every college at Cambridge University.



Not far from Trinity College is St. John ’s College. St. John ’s College is the second largest college at Cambridge University, second only to Trinity College in terms of student numbers. The founder of the college is the Queen Mother Queen Margaret Pop. The college was originally the St. John's Hospital of Cambridge, which was built in the 13th century. By the beginning of the 16th century, the hospital was dilapidated. Bishop John Fisher suggested to Henry VII's mother, Margaret Pope, the founder of the Christ College of Cambridge University, to build a new college on the original site of the hospital. The St. John's College was founded on April 9, 1511.



If you do n’t pay attention, the door of St. John ’s College is not much different from the gate of Trinity College. Looking closely at the statue on Trinity College ’s gate, the religious color is very rich, and the heraldic patterns on the gate are different, which makes it more magnificent.



The architecture of St. John ’s College is very magnificent. The college has 5 courtyards, of which the second courtyard built in 1589 is best known as the “most beautiful Tudor courtyard in England”. According to legend, this is also where the peace treaty between England and France was signed in the 17th century, which also contributed to the marriage of Charles I and his French queen. On the King's Walk, behind a lawn, through the iron fence, you can see part of the campus of St. John's College.



The old library of the College Building was established in 1624. The funds were donated by Bishop John Williams of Lincoln. The window of the library directly faces the Jian River. The most famous bridge of sighs is also at St. John ’s College. It was built in 1831 and crosses the River Cam. It connects the old and new courts of St. John ’s College. Although it is often said that students who fail the exam pass by here and often Sigh, but actually got its name because it is similar to a covered bridge in Venice called the Bridge of Sighs. This must be entered into the college to be seen.



Because most of St. John ’s students come from private public schools in the UK, her students are considered to be the proudest group of all colleges in Cambridge. There has been a children ’s song on the campus of Cambridge, "I would rather go to Oxford than St. John." (I'd rather be at Oxford than at Johns), making fun of the aristocratic atmosphere of the college. A burst of singing full of church hymns came. I saw such a scene in the corner of the teaching building, reflecting the strong religious atmosphere of this college.



St. John's College This is the college with the most architectural complexes. Mr. Jin Yong, who is well known to the Chinese, graduated from here. There are many bicycles parked beside the lawn stone fence outside the college, probably the majority of Cambridge students.



The needs of team members who travel abroad now vary. The main task of some people is to go shopping every time they go, and the arrangements of travel agencies have to take care of these people. After hurriedly visiting the four colleges, the tour guide led the team to the commercial street. Take the time to shoot along the way. I do n’t know what college these two gates are from? The time and vision of boat trips on the River Cam are limited, and it is impossible to fully understand the style of each college. If you really want to understand Cambridge University more comprehensively, you should visit some major colleges. However, such a whole day seems tense.



The ancient town of Cambridge has a long history, with Cambridge first, then Cambridge University, and only after Cambridge University was Cambridge famous. Along the streets of Cambridge, you can also see some buildings left over from the Middle Ages.



This is the Great St Mary ’s Church, which is located in the heart of Cambridge city centre, with an open-air market behind it, opposite the Cambridge University administration building and concert hall, and diagonally opposite King ’s College. The Great St. Mary ’s Church is one of the few churches in the UK that has a mobile sermon altar. The sermon altar can slide from the track into the main altar. The most famous of the Great St. Mary's Church is its bells. The bell of the famous Big Ben is also modeled on the Great St. Mary's Church in Cambridge.



This university church was a city church in Cambridge for a long time. Until the creation of the old school in the 15th century, the dean and academicians met at the Great St. Mary's Church, and the university kept its information here. Until 1730, Cambridge University debates, awarding titles and other university activities were held in this church. It is said that ascending the 123-step tower of the church, you can see the whole city, overlooking the whole picture of many colleges. This is the Great St. Mary's Church later seen in the souk.



On the road, you can see the circular church, which was built by the mysterious Templars in 1130 to commemorate the church of the same name in Jerusalem. It is one of the only four similar buildings in England. It is quite different. It has solid round Norman columns and surrounds a small nave. The rest of the church was expanded in a later style, and the conical roof was only repaired in the 19th century. It is no longer a parish church, but a Tuoyin center. Today, this church is under repair.



Many medieval buildings are preserved in the city of Cambridge. Most of the shops along the street are modern buildings, and the ancient and modern intersect each other. Most of the bicycle riders on the street are students of Cambridge University.



The appearance of many parts of the commercial street is bright and modern, and there are many theaters, art galleries and other facilities that are not commensurate with the size of the city, which makes this university city exude a strong cultural atmosphere.



I saw such artists on the street from time to time. The piano case spread out in front of the box was filled with tips from passers-by. A large speaker was placed on the human tricycle behind, and the sound effect was still very good. Surprisingly, the power supply of the speaker is actually a solar battery! This reflects that the university city of Cambridge is full of strong "technological taste".



The price of Cambridge is relatively high in the UK. I do n’t want to buy luxury goods and have no plans to shop here. I walked with the team all the way and found that there was something special on the street. I saw this alien-like statue in front of a modern building, with the English word "TALOS" on the seat. It was found on the Internet that this is a brand of wireless sensor terminal.



There is a medieval-style building at the beginning of this alley. I wonder what beautiful scenery is hidden in the alley?



The red walls, the sculptures on the lintels, pillars, and doors and windows seem to be a style of ancient British architecture. When I returned to the London town that night, I also saw some houses of this style when hanging out.



This group of buildings on the street has beautiful shapes and bright lines, which are pleasing to the eyes.



The King ’s Walk is a pedestrian street. Only other streets can drive cars. The iron bars beside some streets are covered with various colorful posters. Many of them are related to Cambridge University.



The bar service on the street is mainly for students of Cambridge University, and it must be very lively at night. It was still early, and it seemed a bit deserted.



A small villa like the roadside must be quite old and looks very comfortable.



Along this alley by Queens College, return to the parking lot around five o'clock London time. It will take two to three hours to return to the small town hotel where you stayed.



The tour group that flies directly from Chengdu to Britain and Ireland this time is a small group of only 12 people. It is easy to move with fewer people and easy to unify opinions. Windsor Castle is a self-financed project. The story about "don't love Jiangshan and beauty" attracted everyone. Once I decided to take a look. Itinerary on June 14, 2014 was very tight. I departed from London early in the morning and arrived at Windsor Castle, about 40 kilometers from the suburbs of London. It was less than ten o'clock.



Windsor Castle, located in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, Berkshire, southeast England, is the largest inhabited castle in the world. The castle covers an area of ​​approximately 45,000 square meters (484,000 square feet). Like Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Windsor Castle is also the main administrative residence of the British monarch. The current Queen Elizabeth II spends a considerable amount of time at Windsor Castle every year, where she carries out national or private entertainment. Because it was still early, there were not many people in front of King Henry VIII at Windsor Castle.



The castle was originally built by William I in the 11th century. Because of its long history, the design of the castle continues to evolve with time, royal preferences, and financial changes. Many features mix classic and modern elements. The romantic story of Edward VIII's "Don't Love Jiangshan and Beauty" happened here, making Windsor Castle even more famous. The entire Windsor Castle can be divided into upper, central and lower areas, with King Henry VIII ’s gate in the lower area. In a hurry, the guide took us up the road along the side of the castle in a hurry.



In order to prevent the resistance of the British people, William I the Conqueror built 9 large castles about 32 kilometers apart in the suburbs around London to form a bunker defense line that can support each other. Windsor Castle is the largest of the 9 castles. It is located on a hill by the Thames. It was built in 1070 and has a history of nearly 1,000 years. When we arrived at the ticket hall on the central side of the castle, a team earlier than us had queued up. After buying tickets here, we could pass the security check to enter the castle.



The reason why Windsor Castle is so famous is that it is largely due to the legendary story of King Edward VIII's "don't love the mountains and the beauties". In the early 20th century, King George V died, and Edward VIII took the throne. He met an American married woman, Mrs. Simpson, who was deeply attracted by her beauty and elegance. The King's idea of ​​marrying a foreign woman who had a civilian background and had a history of marriage caused uproar in Britain. Edward VIII announced his abdication, and Mrs. Simpson also divorced her husband. After Edward VIII abdicated and relegated to the Duke of Windsor, they both stayed in Windsor for several months before they settled in France until they died.



After passing the security check, take a Chinese interpreter at the entrance and walk to each location to find the code input and you can hear the introduction to that location. Entering the scenic area and seeing the iconic round tower of Windsor Castle behind the city walls.



One of the characteristics of Windsor Castle is that while being a tourist attraction, it is still a royal residence, and the British will really make full use of resources! However, the original purpose of Windsor Castle was to build military defense. Later, after the expansion and transformation of successive kings, it gradually evolved into a royal palace.



After the death of Henry III in 1272, no further construction was carried out at Windsor Castle until Edward III (reigned from 1327 to 1377) ruled. Edward III was born in the castle on November 12, 1312, so it is often called "Edward of Windsor". Starting in 1350, he began a 24-year reconstruction plan and decided to demolish the castle, night clock tower, and other small fortifications. Through this gate under the tower of Edward III entered the central area of ​​the castle.



A lot of people took pictures in front of the tower of Edward III. After waiting for a while, there was no time when no one was covering it.



The most obvious sign of the Central District is the round tower surrounded by rose gardens. It was built on an artificial hill, originally made of wood, and was not rebuilt in stone until 1170. Before 1660, the round tower was the prison where the political opponents of the royal family were held, and it was the tallest building in the old castle. Climb to the top of the tower for a panoramic view of Windsor. Whenever the queen comes to Windsor Castle, the royal flag will be raised here. The British flag was raised today, not the flag of the royal family. The queen is probably not in the castle.



After passing through the tower gate of Edward III, I saw another closed gate with iron bars, said to be St. George's Gate. From the crack of the iron bars, the main palace in Windsor Castle could be seen. Here, the camera passes through the iron fence and takes a few photos of the upper zone.



Like Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Windsor Castle is also the main administrative residence of the British monarch. The current Queen Elizabeth II spends a considerable amount of time at Windsor Castle every year, where she carries out national or private entertainment.



As one of the important venues for the royal family, Windsor Castle is also one of the important venues for the king to award titles and titles to the royal family and nobles. The most famous one is the "Garden Knight" title. On the festive days of the royal family, as well as important festivals such as Christmas, the queen will choose to host a grand celebration in Windsor Castle. What should be photographed behind the iron railings should be mainly the part of the state diplomatic hall in the palace.



It is not possible to enter the upper zone directly from St. George's Gate, only to walk inward along the road by the palace wall. Here is very close to the side of this riding statue in front of the castle inside the palace. I have never found out who this statue is. According to relevant information: William II's successor William II expanded and renovated the castle, but William I's brother Henry I was the first king to live in Windsor Castle. Is this estimated to be the statue of Henry I?



The main function of Windsor Castle in the early period was to defend against invasion of foreign enemies. When Edward VI (reigned from 1547 to 1553) lived in Windsor Castle, he wrote these thoughts: "I think I am a prisoner, and there is no promenade here. The garden can be strolled in. " Until 2002, when Queen Elizabeth celebrated her 50th anniversary of the throne, the castle management unit designed the old moat into a novel memorial garden, which added a new era landscape to the castle. The wall on the roadside is not high, just admire this small garden along the way.



In Britain, castles are everywhere. Most of these historic and magnificent castles have experienced the bloody times in British history. Behind the high city walls are hidden all kinds of exciting or thrilling stories, which have covered every castle. Layer of mysterious veil. Looking at Windsor Castle through the small garden adds some vitality to the old rigid castle.



The lawn in the small garden is very neatly trimmed, and there are also small fountains, the flowers and trees on the hillside are lush, the colors are rich, and the lawn has wooden chairs for people to relax. However, this garden was built with a moat, and it was full of high walls on both sides. It would feel a bit depressed to walk in some of them. What you see here is the Edward III Tower.



Two round towers appeared behind the circular hill in the center of the small garden. From the steep terrain, they should be very important fortresses in the castle of Windsor.



The road in front of the two round towers is the central round tower and the small garden on one side, and the tall city wall on the other. The Norman Gate is located between the two round towers and is the last defense fortress before entering the upper area of ​​the castle. Through this gate you entered the upper zone of the castle.



Enter the Norman Gate, and not far from the wall to the north balcony of the castle. The north balcony is the castle state hall on one side and a low wall on the cliff side. The scenery outside the castle standing on the low wall has a panoramic view. This is probably why it is called a "balcony".



This is the fortress, residence and administrative residence of the kings and queens of England, and sometimes even the prison. The history of the castle is also very closely related to the British monarchy. The history of Windsor Castle can be traced back to the British monarch who ruled at that time. In times of peace, Windsor Castle will expand many huge and gorgeous rooms; in times of war, castles will strengthen their defenses. This model remains unchanged until now. This ancient cannon by the north balcony is a testament that the castle was once a fortress.



The building that I saw on the north balcony was originally thought to be a church. After I returned, I found out from the Internet that it turned out to be the famous Eaton College. Eaton College is located in the small town of Windsor, 20 miles from London. It is the most famous aristocratic middle school in the UK, ranking among the top ten in the UK. Eaton College is an ancient institution founded by Henry VI in 1440. Eaton is world-famous for its "cradle of elites" and "culture of gentlemen". It is also known for its strict military management. Most of its students have excellent results, and they have trained many former British prime ministers and members of the royal family.



In the upper zone, there are the State Hall, the 13th-century courtroom, the Waterloo Hall and St. George ’s Hall, the Queen ’s Ballroom, and the Queen Mary ’s Doll House. There are many well-decorated rooms in the State Hall, including the King ’s Queen ’s living room, parlor, etc., as well as many different types of exhibitions, such as weapons exhibitions, oil painting exhibitions, statue exhibitions, knight shield exhibitions. The content is very rich, just one Ministry of British Royal History. Have visited a lot of Europe

The palace of the Chau royal family feels the same, but the time is limited. In addition, no photographs are allowed in the State Hall. I walked through it in a hurry, and watched after the iron fence in the upper square.



Directly in front of the iron fence, on the left is the private suite of the royal family, on the right is the south wing, and there is a gate in the middle of the south wing. Outside the gate is the Long Walk, which leads directly to Windsor Park. Rivers and lakes.



The National Suite in the Upper District will not be open to tourists for some time each year. At this time, the entrance ticket to the castle is also reduced, but you can still visit other vast areas in the castle, including Queen Mary ’s doll house, gallery exhibition, and St. George ’s Church. . This door on the side of the iron railing leads to the residence of the royal family.



Like Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle also has a Royal Guard Changing Ceremony, which is performed every day from April to July in good weather and every other day in other months, except Sunday, starting at 11:00 and the whole journey takes about 45 minutes. The guard changing ceremony seen here, the guard was not wearing a black top hat and wearing a red uniform, but a normal uniform, I do not know why.



Leave the castle palace, from this gate leave the upper zone and walk directly to the lower zone.



The lower area mainly has St. George's Chapel, Albert Memorial Chapel and other buildings. St. George's Chapel is a classic, luxurious Gothic building of Windsor Castle. It is famous for its delicate and colorful stained glass, and 10 British royals are buried here. Albert Memorial Chapel is close to St. George's Chapel. It was originally built in 1240 as a late vertical Gothic chapel. It was converted into a memorial chapel for Prince Albert in 1863. St. George's Chapel and Albert Memorial Chapel are under repair today and are almost completely covered by partitions. The railing in the upper right corner of this photo was originally a place to enter the St. George's Chapel and was empty today.



The promenade behind the lawn is called the "Horseshoe Corridor". The Horseshoe Cloister is an example of Windsor Castle's transformation from a royal fortress to a royal residence. It began construction in 1480 near St. George's Church as a residence for clergy. This circular brick building takes on the shape of a horseshoe because horseshoe is said to be one of the symbols of Edward IV.



On the side of the Horseshoe Cloister is the "Late Clock Tower", which is also one of the oldest parts of the castle. It was built in 1227. The inside of the night clock tower contains the remains of the original prison and the emergency passage (secret exit when surrounded). The upper level of the night clock tower includes the clock laid in 1478 and the castle clock in 1689, but the night clock tower The French conical roof was added in the 19th century.



The exit of Windsor Castle is the gate of King Henry VIII. Henry VIII (1491.6.28.-1547.1.28.) Was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty. King of England and Ireland. In order to divorce his wife and marry the new queen, Henry VIII turned his back on the Pope, promoted the Reformation, and passed some important bills to allow himself to marry again. The British bishop was then appointed as the Archbishop of the British Church, and the British church was separated from Rome The Holy See, himself the highest religious leader in England, disbanded the monastery and brought the British royal power to its peak. On January 28, 1547, Henry VIII died in the Whitehall Palace, was buried in St. George's Church in Windsor, and was buried with his third wife, Jane Seymour.



Outside the gate of King Henry VIII is the ancient town of Windsor. The architecture of the ancient town is very beautiful. There is a statue of Queen Elizabeth at the intersection of the castle. These have no time to see. When we walked to the red tourist bus, our CMB arrived and got off the bus.



Oxford and Cambridge are two world-famous universities in the UK. Oxford is called "the city in the university", and Cambridge is the "the university in the city". Unlike other universities, Oxford University does not have a central campus. The campus is the city, the city is the campus, the city and the university are integrated, and the street crosses the campus. After visiting Windsor Castle on June 14, 2014, he came to Oxford at about 1pm London time. Because there are two self-funded items added today, the time seems to be particularly tight. In Oxford, I just hurried through the city.



Oxford (Oxford), located on the upper bank of the Thames in the United Kingdom, is well known to more than 30 Oxford University colleges scattered in the city. As one of the world's leading academic centers, Oxford receives a continuous flow of tourists every day. The world-famous world-renowned institutions and world-renowned monuments make it a dream city for people.



Oxford University is known as "the cradle of genius and prime minister". The school was founded in 1167 and is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Oxford University enjoys a worldwide reputation, and many young students in the UK and around the world take it as their ideal to study at Oxford University. Oxford University has been rated as one of the "Best in the World" and "The Most Famous College" for various reasons.



Oxford is the main city in the Thames Valley. Legend has it that ancient cattle waded through the water, hence the name Oxford (Oxford). Before the 12th century, there were no universities in Britain. People went to France and other European countries to study. In 1167, when the King of England had a quarrel with the King of France, the King of England, in his anger, recalled the British scholars who were enrolled in the University of Paris, forbidding them to go to University of Paris. Another argument is that the King of France drove the British scholars back to the UK from the University of Paris. These scholars returned from Paris and gathered in Oxford. People began to regard Oxford as a "general school", which is actually the predecessor of Oxford University.



In 1209, after the conflict between Oxford students and townspeople, some Oxford scholars moved to Cambridge Town in the northeast and established Cambridge University. Since then, the two universities have been competing against each other for quite a long time. For nine centuries, Oxford University has been the top university in the UK and even the world. Oxford University and Cambridge University are often referred to as Oxbridge, and they are the oldest and most famous universities in England. Oxford is "there is a city in the university", and there is no obvious boundary between the business district and the college district.



Oxford University is different from other universities. The city and the university are integrated, and the street crosses from the campus. Not only does the university have no gates and walls, but it does not even have official signs. The architecture of Oxford is antique and belongs to different architectural schools in different historical periods. In order to hurry, our tour guide took us briskly forward without introducing the colleges one by one on the street. I hurriedly used the camera to record the buildings with different styles on both sides of the street, the campus with clouds and waves, and returned to the hundreds of photos to taste the colorful culture accumulated in Oxford for hundreds of years.



The Rhodes Scholarship, known as the "Nobel Prize for Global Undergraduates", selects 80 of the best senior undergraduates in the world each year to study for a master's degree or Ph.D. at Oxford University. These Rhodes scholars have very important worldwide Influence. Oxford University is a core member of the British research university Russell University Group, the European top universities Coimbra Group, the European Research University Alliance and Europaeum. When I saw a college while traveling, I immediately photographed it, I don't know what the name was.



Oxford University shocked the whole world with its continuous progress and innovation in the three fields of natural sciences, applied economic sciences, and business management philosophy. At the same time, it is well-known for its rich and diverse teaching methods: reading, experiments, tutoring, and other methods. Respect the law of learning, mobilize students' enthusiasm for learning, and cultivate the Oxford elite who can be called the pride of generations. The school is in the field of psychology, biology and law, engineering, social sciences, economics, philosophy, history, music, chemistry, biochemistry, literature, French, German, Danish, mathematics, physics, and earth sciences. Outstanding.



Oxford has a central school (including school and department libraries, and science laboratories), 38 colleges, and 7 permanent private apartments. Some colleges only accept graduate students, these are usually new colleges established. Oxford's college system was born when the university was born and gradually became a collection of independent institutions in Oxford.



The British regard Oxford as a tradition, a symbol, a nostalgia and a pursuit. There you can recall the good old days and relive the glory of the past. There are Saxon towers in St. Michael ’s Church, Norman bunkers and ruins of the city walls, etc., which gives people a sense of depth in history. No wonder there is a popular saying in Britain: “Walking through Oxford is like entering history” You can also rent a flat-bottomed boat to spend a leisurely afternoon on the Zilvi River along the riverwalks of the Zilvi River and the Asis River (the name of the Thames River passing through the city).



When I came back to organize the photos, I realized that this is Oxford Trinity College. Oxford Trinity College was founded by King Henry VIII of England in 1555 AD, its predecessor was Michael College (Michaelhouse) established in 1324 and King's School established in 1317. Trinity is the trinity of Christian Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, so there are many "Trinity Colleges" in the Christian world. Trinity College in Oxford is not as famous as Trinity College in Cambridge, but it has also produced three British prime ministers.



Opposite Trinity College is the famous Sheldonian Theatre. The Grand Theatre, which was completed in 1668, was named "one of Oxford's architectural treasures" by the European Commission in 1994. It is said that it was designed by the famous architect Christopher Wren and donated by Gilbert Sheldon.



Enough to make it clear. The theater is a place where the university holds various grand ceremonies and important events, including the annual entrance ceremony, graduation ceremony, speeches by important people, concerts and so on.



The tour guide took us hurriedly along the main street High Street to save time and went straight to Radcliffe Square. This square is the center of the ancient city of Oxford and the early central teaching area of ​​Oxford University.



Passing through the alley on the side of the Sheldonian Theatre, you come to Radcliffe Square, the center of the ancient city of Oxford, far away from the noise of the main street, surrounded by antique buildings, Oxford University The center for celebrations and various cultural activities is also the center of the entire ancient city.



This beautiful Baroque round building in the center of Radcliffe Square, built in 1749, is the medical and scientific book library of the Oxford University Library. Because the famous doctor John Radcliffe graduated from Oxford University donated a large amount of heritage as a library Named for funding. This round building is one of the buildings most often pictured on postcards as a representative of Oxford University and one of Oxford's landmarks. It is considered to be more representative of Oxford than other buildings and is known as "a baroque accent located in the middle of the Gothic tower of St. Mary's Church and College of Souls". It is now a student study room at the Oxford University Library.



The Radcliffe Library, commonly known as Rad, is the earliest circular library in the world. The Palladian style built by James Gibbs was laid on May 17, 1737, construction was completed in 1748, and an opening ceremony was held on April 13, 1749, called the "Physics Library". Most of the works collected from 1811 are scientific books. Later the Radcliffe Science Library was moved to another building, and the Radcliffe Library became an additional library and reading room. He is the earliest example of a round library in Britain. On the third floor, the upper floor contains a gallery, the basement is an open arched mall, the interior is continuous Corinthian columns, beautifully carved decoration, the victory stone columns and obelisk of 1751 are placed around. Each floor has a large number of books and reading tables and chairs, which is the favorite library for students



The circular library is opposite the Bodley Library, which is the oldest library. Upstairs. There are also the earliest books. Some pictures of "Harry Potter" were taken here. For example, in the first Magic Stone, Harry Potter sneaked in invisible clothes in order to read the banned book about the Magic Stone, took off the invisible clothes, held up The picture of the oil lamp looking for a book was taken here. There is a fee to enter the tour, and no photos are allowed.



The books upstairs here are not accessible to the average person. Only academic needs can apply for access. Because these books have gone through hundreds of years, the library must protect them carefully. It is said that "Harry Potter" spent a lot of money here. We have no chance to enter, we can only look outside.



There is an unwritten law in the UK. Anyone who publishes any book must send one to the Oxford Library. Therefore, the Oxford University Library has become the most authoritative library in the UK. The Bodley Library is divided into the old library and the new library, with a collection of 5 million books, second only to the British Library and one of the three major copyright libraries in the UK. The library ’s collection management is strict and can only be read, not loaned, and even the king cannot make an exception. This is another door of the library.



The text on this door is Latin, and the translation is "It is gratifying that Sir Thomas Bodley built this library for the inheritance and development of Oxford academics." The statue in front of the door is probably Sir Thomas Bodley. Around 1860, when Oxford University integrated the Bodley Library and Redcliffe Library into a university public library, it was called the Latin Camera (that is, the English room), which is its full name Radcliffe Camera Reason. It's ridiculous that some people treat it all as English, which translates into the nondescript "Redcliffe Camera"!



Behind the round building is the ancient St. Mary ’s Church, which is the main church of Oxford University. It has a history of nearly a thousand years, and the building is magnificent and gorgeous. In the 14th-century melee between teachers and students and citizens, the king ruled that the citizens compensate the university for the losses and bear the cost of the university for the next 500 years. Therefore, on the annual monk's day, a team of Oxford citizen representatives came to the church and handed over the compensation to the school's highly respected people. Now this has become a symbolic ceremony. Ascending to the top of the church is an excellent viewing platform overlooking Oxford University.



The ancient part, including the tower, was built in the early 14th century. In the early days of St. Mary ’s Church, it was a common church for all colleges. All ceremonies, formal meetings, and examinations were conducted here. Later, the activities of each college became more and more independent, and the role of the church gradually weakened. The porch was built in 1637, and its spiral column is a major innovation in the history of British architecture. The war of 1645 left bullet marks on the porch. Going to the other side of the church, I saw the spiral column, which was really special.



The round building is flanked by the majestic All Souls College, built by Henry Chichele in 1438 to commemorate the soldiers who died in the anti-court battle. The difference with other Oxford colleges is that it does not have its own college students. Every year, when Wanling College adds new members, it invites the best students from Oxford University to participate in an exam organized by Wanling College, of which the best The two students will become new members of Wanling College. Becoming a member of All Spirit College is considered the highest honor in the UK.



Wanling College belongs to a college in the Oxford University Alliance, and the structure of the college has not changed since its establishment. Today, the college is mainly an academic research institution. It is the only college in Oxford that only recruits researchers. There are no students, only academicians. It is regarded as one of the world's most advanced academic institutions.



Many towers are built on top of the buildings of Oxford Colleges, especially Wanling College. Looking out from the Redcliffe Round Tower, there are many spires, and Oxford is also known as the city of the ivory tower. The tuition fees at Oxford University are very expensive. It turns out that the ivory tower is indeed made of ivory!



Turning around the round building quickly, I found that the scenery outside the iron gate and the iron grid is special. At first, I thought it was a residential house. Check the information to know that this is a college of Oxford University-Hertford College (Hertford College). Located on Catte Street in the heart of Oxford, UK, directly opposite the Bodleian Library. Founded in 1438, there are 612 students. Famous alumni include William Tindale, John Donne, Thomas Hobbs, Jonathan Swift and Evelyn Waugh.



A bridge of sighs similar to Venice in Italy is between two arms. According to reports, the bridge was generously donated by banker Thomas Bahrain and designed and built by famous architect Thomas Graham Jackson in 1914. It connects the two squares of the Hertford College: the new square and the old square, belonging to the stone structure and Gothic style.



The bridge of Hertford College was built in 1914, and the arch span is 16 meters. Its shape is similar to the sigh bridge in Venice, also known as the "sigh bridge". According to legend, the graduation exam at Oxford University is very strict. Students who do not study hard often fail the exam and come here to sigh and cry. Therefore, the school named it "Sigh Bridge". It is also said that the school always allows students who have made mistakes to come here to stand up and reflect, and after the students reflect, they often sigh. The Bridge of Sighs at Hertford College was built in 1913 (completed in 1914). The official name is Hertford Bridge, and it is a famous attraction at Oxford University. Designed by Sir Tomas Jackson (Sir TomasJackson).



After the Bridge of Sighs at Hertford College, the tower seen is called the Calfax Clock Tower and is the only remaining remains of St. Martin's Church. The history of St. Martin ’s Church dates back to the 11th century, and has been the religious center of Oxford for centuries. Elizabeth I once held religious ceremonies here. But in the course of the continuous expansion of the road in the 19th century, the church and fountain were successively demolished, and only this bell tower remained.



In the history of nearly 800 years, Oxford University has trained 6 British kings, 26 British prime ministers (including Gladstone, Attlee, Thatcher and Tony Blair), and many foreign government heads (such as Former US President Bill Clinton), nearly 40 Nobel Prize winners, and a large number of famous scientists and economists. Faced with such impressive achievements, visitors can't help but respect Oxford!



The British Conservative Party leader Baldwin once said that Britain is the country, and the country is the UK. This is a famous saying and a standard British motto. British nobles are happy to be countrymen. Tired of the hustle and bustle brought about by industrial civilization, the British chose a country estate. To fully understand the history, culture and current situation of Britain, we should visit the noble manor. Churchill Manor is enough to represent the British love for the manor. We left Oxford and went to Churchill Manor.



The east gate in Churchill Manor is now only open to VIPs, and general visitors have to enter and exit from the visitor center to the north. The door is inscribed with the inscription: Under the light of the generous monarch's luck, this house was built for Duke John Marlborough and his wife Sarah. It was built by Mr. Van Buller from 1705 to 1722 ... This one didn't open today, and I had to enter through a small door not far from the side.



Churchill Manor, according to the transliteration, should be "Blenheim Palace", was built in 1705, its gate stone has been darkened by the years. In 1704, Commander-in-Chief John Churchill defeated the French army in the small village called Blenheim on the north bank of the Danube, and made outstanding achievements. Queen Anne gave her hereditary Duke and gave the huge royal hunting ground to Oxford Churchill The couple built the "Blenheim Palace" for them. It was called "The Churchill Manor" because the Churchill family lived here for generations, and because in 1874, the most famous prime minister in history, Winston Churchill, was born here.



"Blenheim Palace" is located in the town of Woodstock, Oxfordshire. It was first built in 1705. It was given to John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, by Queen Anne at the time to commend him for defeating the French army. It was only completed in 17 years. More than 100 years later, the famous British iron-fisted prime minister Winston Churchill was born here, and is commonly known as "The Churchill Manor", known as one of the most exquisite and elegant Baroque palaces in England.



Blenheim Palace is the only building in the UK that is neither owned by the royal family nor religious, but is called the Palace. This country mansion is owned by the Duke of Marlborough (the title of the Churchill family) and is one of the largest buildings in Britain. Blenheim Palace was included in the "World Heritage List" in 1987.



The famous British Prime Minister Churchill did not enjoy the inheritance of this manor, because his father, Lord Chancellor Randolph Churchill, was not the eldest son, the third son of Duke VII of Marlborough, just a member of the nobility. His cousin is the heir to this private mansion. It was once the home of Randolph Churchill, but it was never the home of Prime Minister Churchill. He only lived here because of his father.



When the palace was built, Queen Anne said that Britain could beat France on the battlefield and win the French victory in construction, but her appropriation was not fully in place. After work stopped in 1712 and Queen Anne died, Mrs. Churchill had to use her own money to complete the construction of the manor. After 17 years, the Duke of Marlborough I did not see the whole palace. In front of the main building of Blenheim Palace, there is a road covered with coarse gravel. It does not appear luxurious, it does not rain or slip, and people or horses walk on it. It is very comfortable. Europeans and Americans seem to like this kind of coarse gravel. In front of the US Capitol Hill, under the Eiffel Tower in France, this is the way. It is said that during World War II, Prime Minister Winston Churchill once summoned a tens of thousands of "Oath Master Meetings" in this courtyard to call against the fascist aggression.



The main building of Blenheim Palace consists of a two-story main building and two-winged courtyards. The exterior mixes the Collins-style colonnade, the Baroque tower, and the high and raised triangular walls, forming a patchwork of positive facade lines. The Duke Memorial Hall is an iconic building of Blenheim Palace. The roof of the Memorial Hall has a small tower and a bell tower. The four pillars supporting the gate of the Duke Memorial Hall are called Corinthian pillars, and they have the meaning of praising Marlborough merits. The main body of the building is connected with stone columns instead of walls. A huge Corinthian stone pillar with a triangular gable, which is embossed with the family coat of arms of the Duke of Marlborough, with the family's famous motto "The evil in your heart, the calamity on you"



Entrance to Blenheim Palace is required to receive tickets. It is open every day of the year from 10:30 to 5:30. However, it is only open every week from Wednesday to Sunday 5 days, only during Christmas (12 14th of the month to mid-February of the following year) Not open. In front of the main building of Blenheim Palace, there are always many tourists. Some old people wearing traditional English clothes are very eye-catching. I do n’t know what activities they are doing here.



Entering the lobby, there are salons, reception rooms, libraries, living rooms, etc., all surrounded by small courtyards, connected to the central hall through the veranda. The interior is decorated with family oil paintings, tapestries and various decorative ornaments, each of which is made by famous artists. The most amazing thing in the magnificent hall is the ceiling painted by James Sanhill in 1716: it was unfolded in the Blenheim Palace in the order of the war, demonstrating the victory of Madero. The long arched corridor extends to the north and south sides of the hall, which is a typical work of Wembler.



Winston Churchill, one of the most famous prime ministers in British history, was born in a room on the west side of the main building. His father is not a family heir and does not live here. When his mother came here to attend the dinner, he suddenly gave birth prematurely and gave birth to the most prominent person in the family. In the palace, there are the bedroom and exhibition hall of Prime Minister Churchill, and he can look back on his life. Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill is not only one of the most important political leaders of the 20th century, but also a painter, speaker, writer and journalist.



In his later years, Winston Churchill hunted here, painted, wrote memoirs, and sent his love between the landscape. On January 24, 1965, Churchill died of a stroke. The British government held a state funeral for Churchill. According to Churchill's last wish, the coffin was finally transported by train to the Bretton Church Cemetery near Blenheim Palace where he was born, where he was buried with his parents. Churchill's prestige is not dim because of his death. To this day, Churchill is still regarded as the greatest prime minister by most British people. Churchill topped the list in the 2002 "Best 100 Britons" balloting event hosted by the BBC.



In the national restaurant, the tables are placed with silver-plated gilded tableware. The center of the silver object, placed on an isolated table, shows Madro still riding on horseback after the victory of Blenheim. The marble door made by Green Ring Gibbons was decorated with a two-headed eagle badge when the Duke of Marlborough was Prince of the Roman Empire.



There is such a decoration at the end of the national restaurant. It seems to be a gorgeous pipe organ on closer inspection, which fully shows that the Churchill family is really a noble Zhongming Ding's home!



The palace is magnificently decorated with a large number of oil paintings, sculptures, tapestries and many exquisite furniture. The halls and the promenades in the Blenheim Palace are dazzling. The Blenheim Palace is as good as the emperor's palace in both appearance and interior. Due to time constraints, we can only walk in a hurry. There are a lot of precious oil paintings hidden in this hall. It's too late to look closely. The one in the center on the right wall wonders if it is the first Duke of Marlborough.



There are still many exquisite sculptures in the palace, and I can't take care of the shooting. I only hurriedly photographed this very special silver sculpture.



There is also a small church in the Blenheim Palace. Although it is small, it is neat and magnificent, which is about the usual prayer for the Churchill family.



There is a group of exquisite sculptures in the middle of the chapel. What kind of story is it describing?



There are a pair of stone lions above the gates leading to the east and west courtyards. This is a very interesting and profound artwork. A male lion is playing with a rooster. The cock's wings are struggling, and the male lion's mouth is grinning.



On the west side of the Blenheim Palace, the square towers of the four corners of the palace are revealed. The fountain waterscape garden to the west of the building was designed and built by the first designer John Van Buller in the 18th century. There are 13 sections in total. There is a fountain in the middle and four corners of the water garden. The boxwood, statues and decorative walls are scattered in the water garden. 13 fountains form a small stepped waterfall, which flows into the middle of the water garden.



At the beginning of the 20th century, the ninth generation Duke of Marlborough rebuilt a regular-shaped garden on the east and west sides of this mansion. This pattern of gardens was once abandoned by Brown and replaced by lawns. The ninth-generation Duke asked the most famous French garden designer, Asher Dichener, to redesign these gardens. Dichener once designed and built the country of Essonne in France. The Duke hopes to restore the original appearance of the lake, but Dichena just built a peculiar pool here.



The neatly trimmed boxwood surrounds a huge fountain pool. Both the pool and the boxwood are designed in a regular geometric pattern. At the four corners of the fountain pool, there are four statues of ancient Greek goddesses. The water column caused waves of waves and looked angry. These gardens were built to further beautify the environment of high-rise houses, and the colorful flowers are pleasing to the eye. The patchwork boxwood replaced the flowers like a relief on the colored sand.



In the United Kingdom, sculptures are rarely used in gardens that imitate natural scenery, and Blenheim Palace is a French Baroque garden where sculptures can be seen everywhere.



Despite adding a lot of artificial scenery, Churchill Manor is still known for its elegant English afternoon tea style. On the garden side, next to Blenheim Palace, some English people are relaxing here drinking afternoon tea, and the statues of ancient Greek goddesses are accompanying them.



For hundreds of years, British official residence gardens and courtyards have been influenced by French and Italian garden models. By the mid-18th century, the over-pursued formal garden model in continental Europe has been replaced by a new British garden design concept. This new concept Pay attention to imitating the natural scenery, advocate abandoning the French uniform garden pattern, and completely abandon the straight lines and stereotyped patterns.



From the height of the house, the garden is neatly and orderly arranged, with plants, passages and decorations, lakes and forests in the distance. British horticulturalists believe that plants are like paints in the hands of painters, that is to say, gardeners must use various plants to achieve the shape and color of the garden. The west side of Blenheim Palace fully displays the gorgeous layout of the overall garden. In the distance, there is a garden designed by Brown that reflects the natural scenery of England; by the lake, there is an Italian terraced garden designed by Dichena, while reflecting France Geometric style garden style. We have no time to go further, we can only look around the Blenheim Palace.



The "Waterscape Garden" built by master architect Van Bühler in the 18th century was built on steps, and it looks like this when walking down the stairs to see Blenheim Palace.



The stone ridges of the water landscape garden beside the steps are decorated with portraits and lotus petals. The water flowing down from the water landscape garden on the lotus petals is collected in a small pool.



A group of British gentlemen in white clothes and white trousers on the green lawn by the water garden, what kind of sports did they play? Are they members of the Churchill family? Life is so leisurely!



There are a lot of British people resting on the lawn and under the shade of trees. This place is full of a noble, elegant and quiet atmosphere.



Go out of the palace gate, take advantage of the many people walking in the souvenir mall at the exit, and take a walk around the neighborhood. Outside the manor palace, there are pastures, lakes and forests, full of idyllic atmosphere. Churchill Manor is claimed to be more beautiful than the British Royal Palace. It took a full 17 years to complete it. Many British people like to compare it with the largest Versailles Palace in Europe. If you walk slowly along the soft and undulating grassy slopes of the lake to the other side, I am afraid that it will not end for an afternoon. The sun is playing hide-and-seek with us, hiding in the dark clouds for a while, and illuminating the manor for a while. Some tourists sit and lie on the green lawn and enjoy the charming scenery.



When the Duke chose this mansion, he first took a fancy to a wide river valley called Grim, which formed a swamp with other tributaries. The construction of this mansion garden must be considered in harmony with the surrounding natural landscape. The Marlborough family handed over the responsibility of building the Blenheim Palace to the famous garden designer Lancelot Brown in 1764. Brown believes that garden design should be integrated with natural scenery and should not leave traces of artificial modification. He built a dam on the Grim River to form a large area of ​​water, so the bridge turned into two curved lakes. An ordinary Van Bühler bridge connects Blenheim Palace with the ranch.



Outside the majestic arches on the north side of "Blenheim Palace", there are vast soft green grass. A wide and neat corridor extending from the Van Buller Bridge leads straight to the towering "pillar of victory" at the end. The "pillar of victory" is 40 meters high, with statues of eagles and Marlborough, and the goddess of victory with wings, so this stone pillar is also called the "pillar of victory". Under the goddess column is a piece of green grass, and the flocks of sheep make this 5,000-hectare mansion alive.



On the south side of the palace, there are many typical gardens of different European styles. The grass slopes are dotted with small flowers. The lake is like a mirror, reflecting the blue sky and the reflection of water lilies. It didn't disturb it a little bit, but it was more quiet. The scale of the manor is large, so there are small sightseeing trains running between the two sides of the park. Sitting on the small train and watching it in circles, it seems to have returned to England in the 18th century. Everything here shows the typical British manor culture to people.



In the minds of most British people, the most ideal life is to earn enough money to buy a manor in the countryside, with a marginal distant green lawn and various centuries-old trees dotted between them, and the garden near the house has brilliant English roses , Sitting in a small living room with potted begonias drinking tea and reading books, waiting for visitors to ring the bell. . . . . . Even if this ideal will not be realized in a lifetime, this dream has been handed down from generation to generation. The English rural complex made the “Manor theme” in English literature enduring. The series “Downton Manor” is a representative.



The earliest capitalist Britain in the world, the ideal living environment is a fresh and pleasant, quiet and serene country manor, but today all parts of mainland China are pursuing brutal forced demolition, shallow and frivolous "rural urbanization", which is really impressive ! Churchill Manor is a self-funded project in this trip. After walking out of the manor, I feel really worthwhile! On the coach leaving the manor, the last photo was taken in a hurry.

After leaving Churchill Manor on the afternoon of June 14, 2014, I ran all the way north to the small town near Manchester, passing by Shakespeare's hometown of Stratford, it was already around five pm London time. The town of Stratford, 180 kilometers from London, is the birthplace and death of William Shakespeare, the great British dramatist. The coach crossed the bridge outside the town until it stopped at the parking lot not far from Shakespeare ’s former residence.



Shakespeare has written 37 plays, 154 14-line poems, two long poems and other poems during his lifetime. His representative works include: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Romeo. "Juliet" etc. Known as "the most outstanding British dramatist and poet in the Renaissance", "the world's most famous drama master". Stratford on the Emma River in his hometown. The population is only 20,000, but there are 1.5 million tourists every year. The main purpose of people coming here is to take a look at Shakespeare's birth, work, life and resting place. At the entrance of Stratford, a statue of a clown in Shakespeare's plays was erected. It is said that there are many places in the UK called "Stratford", so the full name here is "Stratford on the upper Yavin".



On April 23, 1564, Shakespeare was born in a small building on the north side of Henry Street in Stratford. The small building had a two-story wooden structure and was an early 16th-century building. The reddish-brown sloping tile roof is particularly conspicuous, and the light yellowish-orange outer wall is divided into a large rectangular grid by dark oak. Three small lofts with windows protrude from the eaves. The exposed wooden frame and the windows and door eaves protruding from the wall make the cabin show a dynamic and scattered beauty. In the garden behind the house, the magnificent and colorful flowers are still as splendid and open as in those days, with an elegant and simple style.



Here is a witness to Shakespeare's childhood and youth, and it has become a must-see spot for Shakespeare fans all over the world. Tourists can feel the breath of Shakespeare's life in this rich cultural atmosphere. On the side of the house is the "Shakespeare Center". This modern building is both a library and an archive, built by private donations from the United States and Canada. I really want to check it out, but I don't have time.



The furniture and other objects in Shakespeare ’s former residence form part of the collection of the museum under the Shakespeare ’s Birthplace Administration Committee. There are five Shakespeare houses in the town, each of which is located in a beautiful garden. Come visit. Perhaps it was too late. At this time, this Shakespeare's former residence was not open to the outside. There were iron bars around it, and I couldn't peep into what was inside. In front of the house, there are constantly Shakespeare fans from all over the world, taking pictures to commemorate.



There are three places in the town related to Shakespeare: One is the birthplace of Shakespeare. After Shakespeare's death in 1616, people obsessed with his work began to visit the town. In 1847, the government bought the mansion where Shawon was born through public fundraising activities. The second is the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. The theatre is owned by the Royal Shakespeare Company and is renowned for being located in Shakespeare ’s former residence. Since its establishment in 1961, the troupe has moved all of Shakespeare's scripts to the stage. Each Shakespeare's repertoire was performed in London only after its premiere. The third is the Holy Trinity Church. This is where Shakespeare accepted the baptism and the final funeral. We stayed in the town for a short time and could only look around Shawon ’s birth house.



Shakespeare had to drop out of school to make a living because of his family background. He left his hometown and went to London. At first, he played in the theater in London. Later, he had the opportunity to become an actor and began to adapt and write scripts. After he achieved considerable achievements, he already had a very good residence in the capital, London, and had a considerable position and reputation in the society, because he liked his hometown and the Avon River very much. Around 1603, he was still Going back to the town where he gave him the name Strafford, he eventually grew up on this land.



Shakespeare has an indescribable and powerful sense of cultural belonging to the modern British. He and his works seem to be the embodiment of modern British history and culture. To date, major theaters in London have used his classic works to remind people from time to time. . Although he has been away for hundreds of years, Shakespeare is still everywhere in the town, and everything in the town is related to him. Shops, hotels, streets, cultural facilities, from trademarks to naming, or use his avatar, or his name, or use the characters and events in his drama.



Shakespeare's dramas describe the colorful social life, shaping various characters, rich in content and profound in thought. He eulogized the victory of humanistic thought with rare enthusiasm, advocated the liberation of personality, and opposed asceticism. He belongs not only to one era and one country to England, he belongs to all the centuries and the whole world. Every year on April 23 is a grand festival in Stratford. At that time, people from all over the world, representatives of British cities, local citizens, celebrities of literature and drama from all countries come to this rally to commemorate the birth of Shakespeare. Thousands of people, holding flowers, from the city center to the Holy Trinity Church, endlessly for several kilometers, went to Shakespeare cemetery, offering wreaths, quite spectacular.



On April 23, 1616, Shawon died of illness. On April 25, his family buried him next to the north wall of the church altar where his predecessors were buried. The church has a Shakespeare monument, and another tombstone is engraved with a famous and intriguing verse: "Dear friends, for the sake of God, do not excavate the body buried here; those who do not damage the tombstone Blessed, those who move my bones will be cursed. "When I was young, I was a fan of Shawong. Although I studied science, I used my spare time when I was studying. I really wanted to continue along this road to find Shakespeare's footsteps, but the sound of the guide urging the car back into the parking lot sounded in my ear.

Departing from a small town near Manchester early on June 15, 2014, England's fields were shrouded in smoke and rain along the way. Although the visibility is not very good, the air is still fresh. The distant hills, nearby houses, trees, and pastures form a watercolor painting, which constantly flashes through the car window.

When passing by Manchester, although there were not many fans on the team, the tour guide was still kind and took a look at Trafford, the home side of the Manchester United team. Newton Heath, the predecessor of Manchester United Football Club, was founded on the Newton Heath site by workers from Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways in 1878. In 1902, the team was reorganized and renamed Manchester United. It is now the English Premier League club. Manchester United's home team is the "Dream Theater" Old Trafford Stadium, which has been in use since 1910. Ma Yu took a picture in front of the stadium. .

Manchester United is one of the most successful clubs in the history of English football and one of the most influential and successful teams in Europe and the world. It has won 20 English Premier League titles, 11 English FA Cup titles and 4 English League matches. Cup champion (all records except the English League Cup). Perhaps it was too early and it was raining. There were few people except our team. The gate of the venue was closed and I had to look outside. The statue outside the stadium is the famous "Manchester United Three Musketeers".







In the European arena, Manchester United won 3 UEFA Champions League titles, 1 European Cup Winners' Cup and 1 European Super Cup. The statue at the entrance of the stadium is Manchester United's most famous coach Ferguson. There are some souvenir shops related to Manchester United on both sides of the entrance, and the doors are also closed at this time.



The English Lake District is one of the "50 Most Worthy Places in Your Life" selected by National Geographic. Here are the most beautiful scenery in the UK, with sparkling lakes and dotted sailboats. As the famous British poet Wordsworth said: "I don't know of any other place that can show such a magnificent and beautiful scenery in such a narrow range, in the illusion of light and shadow. It is called by the British" The "back garden" lake area is located on the northwest coast of England. There are 16 lakes of different sizes. It was classified as a national park in 1951. It is the center of the lake area and the largest lake in England. When we arrived at the small town of Windermere by Lake Windermere, it was already 11:00 in the morning.



Windermere is the first stop for most visitors to the Lake District National Park. First, because it is the gate of the Lake District, tourists who come to the Lake District generally have to take a train to get here, and then take a local bus to other towns and scenic spots; second, because here is close to the Lake District and the largest lake in England- -Lake Windermere.



The town is located on a small highland by the lake, and the streets between the towns are up and down. The street is narrow, and on both sides is the unique style of the lake district of the house: the stone roof and walls are built, antique, very clean, simple and economical, warm in winter and cool in summer, fireproof and waterproof, much better than wooden houses.



The tour guide arranged for us to take a walk in the town first. I saw shops lined on both sides of the street. The shops here are not bad. They all have their own beautiful characteristic buildings and a lively commercial street that tightly connects Windermere and Bowness to the lake. Along the way, there are many restaurants and bars, and small shops with local characteristics.



Peter Rabbit's store should be the most famous and characteristic store in Bowness, because this is Peter Rabbit's hometown. Children ’s literature writer Beatrix Potter lived in the town of Bowness and spent most of his life guarding this beautiful lake. Her "The Story of Peter Rabbit" was officially published in October 1902, and the book has since become a popular bestseller in the world. Porter spared no effort to shelter the natural jungle of the Lake District. Almost all of his writing income was used to buy real estate and farms in the Lake District. By the time she died at the age of 77, 4,000 acres of Lakeland land had been acquired by her, and all were left to the National Trust and Monuments.



The hut made of blue and yellow stone slate and the winding streets are like an oil painting, which attracts the attention of every tourist. Windermere town is full of family hotels and souvenir shops, as well as many restaurants and coffee shops, the tourism atmosphere is very strong. At a crossroads, there was actually such a restaurant. The green cloth on the door wrote in Chinese: "You and me are delicious Chinese restaurants."



The town has a population of 40,000, but it welcomes 1.6 million tourists from all over the world every year. Windermere is a very neat and quiet town. Although the lake district is full of tourists during the peak tourist season, "people go to the low", and tourists flow to the small town of Bowness on the lake. It was so quiet in the alley beside the main road from Windermere.



There is no need to worry about board and lodging in the Lake District, because there are many small hotels and English-style family hostels, there are about 70, and the tour club provides a full English breakfast. In Windermere, most hostels are concentrated on Broad Street and College Street, less than 10 minutes ’walk from the train station. There are no large hotels in town, many small hotels and B & Bs are very tasteful, giving people a warm feeling of going home. This Windermere hotel is relatively large in town.



There are many beautiful views around Lake Windermere. The British have to stay here for at least 10 days and a half months. Tourists who come here freely have to stay here for three or five days to enjoy the quiet and idyllic pastoral life. Generally, a group tour only stays here for about 1 hour and can only be seen by the lake. On the hillside by the town, there are some beautiful hotels with gardens.



Because there are many people coming here for vacations, there are many hotels in the town. There are also many small villas on both sides of the lake, which are highly private but unique and beautiful. On a small hillside on the shore of Lake Windermere, I found such a large-scale hotel, which faces Lake Windermere and has a very wide view, but it can be imagined that its price is definitely high.



The Windermere Lake District was classified as a national park in 1951 and is the largest of the 11 national parks in England and Wales. The narrow and long Windermere Lake District is unique in the diversity and drama of the scenery. The mountain peaks, the steep valleys, the sparkling lakes and the rolling green hills make the holidaymakers all over the world intoxicated. The beautiful lakes and mountains make people forget to return. The average temperature in the Lake District in summer is 16 degrees Celsius, and the average temperature in winter is 4 degrees Celsius. It can be said that the winter is warm and the summer is cool. More than one million tourists come here every year for vacation.



The small town of Bowness on the lake faces Bowness Bay, and there are always crowds of people on the pier and the lake. The beautiful red chic lake tour bus parked by the town is a public transportation within the lake district. It travels daily to and from the north and south of the lake district, reaching the three famous towns of Windermere and Ambleside in the lake district. (Ambleside) and Grasmere.



There are also many small, high-quality hotels and hostels in the small town of Bowness, which looks very beautiful from the lakeside pier.



Lake Windermere is the largest lake in England, formed at the end of the last glacial period, in a glacial valley that runs north-south through the Cumbrian Mountains. The lake is long and narrow, with the deepest point at the north end. In addition to being nourished by rain and snow in the surrounding highlands, Lake Windermere also receives water from other nearby lakes, such as Lake Grasmere. The lake water comes from the Levine River. The lake is narrow and long, 17 kilometers long and 2 kilometers at its widest point. There are some small islands in the center of the lake, most of them are uninhabited islands. When the weather is good, sails of various colors are floating on the surface of the water. At this time, the clouds are overcast, and the lake is gray. Several sailing boats float on the surface.



On September 11, 2014, a British photographer said that the United Kingdom was not only a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland, she also took photos of the monster in Lake Windermere in England. This is not the first time someone has claimed to find a "water monster" at Lake Windermere. In 2006, it was reported for the first time that a "water monster" was found in the North West Lake District of England. Since then, "Water Monster" has appeared several times in the local area. Today it is obviously impossible to see water monsters here, seeing a swan and ducks cruising above the lake.



On the lakeside of Lake Windermere, there are swans and ducks everywhere. They take a leisurely walk, combing feathers, waiting for tourists to feed them delicious feed. The swan is the queen's private property, you can feed it crumbs, but you must not hurt it.



The elegant and noble swans have also been spoiled by others. They do not roam gracefully in the water, but perch on the shore to perch wildly. Once they find that the tourists are feeding, they are begging.



There are also some swans on the lawn along the road, swaying and walking, ignoring the tourists who have been passing by them. From time to time, they raised their necks and yelled a few times. If they found too close to an intruder, they would stretch their necks Pecking people, proclaiming that this is their territory and cannot be violated. Lifting the camera to take pictures, if they are found, they always put their heads up and put on a noble look.



It is appropriate to describe the scenery of the English Lake District with "lake and mountain scenery". Nature has created all the beautiful scenery here: river valleys, mountains, waterfalls, dotted lakes. A cruise on Lake Windermere is a frustrating choice for rushing travelers and the best choice. Go around the lake and you will understand why this biggest small lake is so attractive to people. However, our stay was too short to go to the lake by boat, even if the shortest journey was only 45 minutes.



Originally, June was the most beautiful season at the turn of spring and summer in the Windermere Lake District. Strolling by the lake, the surrounding mountains were surrounded by greenery, large forests and rolling lawns surrounded the satin-like clean and smooth tranquil lake, in the distance All kinds of sails and shadows are flying, flocks of sect head seagulls flying in the air, white swans quietly floating gracefully on the water, and sometimes going ashore to walk around tourists, it also gives the lake area a taste of heaven on earth. The weather is not good, time is limited, and you can only stroll around the lake.



The Lake District is composed of sixteen large and small lakes, and there are 10 larger lakes. Generally speaking, there is little difference in the scenery between each lake, so if you have limited time, you do n’t have to visit all 10 lakes. The most popular of these are Lake Windermere, Lake Coniston, Lake Worcester and Derwentwater. We can only take a look at Lake Windermere, sighing at the pier and cruise ship.



The entire United Kingdom is a large garden, a large grass field, and Lake Windermere is the most beautiful place recognized by the British and even the whole world. It is the back garden of the British. Behind these sailboats with "Flags of Silence", looking at the gray sky, imagining the beauty of the lake and mountains under the blue sky and white clouds, sigh for today's luck.



The Windermere Lake District, known as "the most beautiful scenery in central England", is the hometown of the famous fairy tale Peter Rabbit, and one of the locations of "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". Harry rides an eagle Winged beasts flying through the air were photographed in Lake Windermere. Leaving the noisy pier and walking inward along a tree-lined road, a relatively quiet harbor appeared.



The English Lake District is the hometown of human souls, and many people are very fond of this land. Owning your own house by the lake allows children to play dinghy sailing in the lake from an early age, which is probably just the right of the rich. Many private yachts are quietly moored in the harbor away from the cruise ship terminal. Today the weather is bad, and most of them have not cruised on the lake.

Edinburgh is a famous cultural city and the capital of Scotland, located on the south bank of the Forth Bay in the lowlands of central Scotland. An area of ​​260 square kilometers. The city was established in 1329 and was the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland from 1437 to 1707. Edinburgh Castle (Edinburgh Castle) is located on top of extinct volcanic granite and can be seen from all corners of the city center. Edinburgh Castle became a royal fortress in the 6th century. Queen Margaret died here in 1093. Edinburgh Castle has since become an important royal residence and national administrative center. It has been one of the important royal castles in Britain until the Middle Ages. By the beginning of the 16th century the Holyrood Palace was inaugurated, replacing Edinburgh Castle as the main residence of the royal family. Came to Edinburgh Castle in the morning on June 16, 2014.





However, Edinburgh Castle is still an important symbol of Scotland. The castle is now open to the public, and some of its buildings are also allowed for tourists to visit. It is one of Scotland's most popular tourist attractions, welcoming more than 1.2 million tourists from all over the world every year. There is a military museum in the castle, displaying various kinds of objects, and describing the military history of Scotland, Britain and Europe.



Edinburgh Castle's most proud Scots are its political and cultural position. Edinburgh was once the political and cultural center of a country in Scotland. This is a position that no ancient castle ever had. Because of this, it has also experienced many pains and vicissitudes, political and military struggles, so that it has always been in the position of the central role. In the long battle history between Scotland and England, the strong and unyielding spirit shown by the Edinburgh people reflects the spiritual style of the entire Scots.



The history of the Scots is reflected in the ancient artillery on the castle, the city walls, the war memorial and the museum. In the era of pursuing peace and development, the veritable "swords and guns are put into storage, Ma Fang Nanshan". What we can touch and feel is the creation and construction of a civilization. This kind of creation and construction has a long history as well as a modern one. The achievements have made Edinburgh people proud. After buying tickets through this laneway, you can enter the castle to visit, standing on the castle can also overlook the whole city of Edinburgh. Because of the limited time, no entry was arranged and I only looked outside.



The charm of Edinburgh lies in its ancient age. Edinburgh Castle became a bastion of the Scottish royal family in the 6th century, 200 years earlier than Leeds Castle in England, 400 years earlier than Windsor Castle, and 600 years earlier than Heidelberg Castle in Germany. In the sense of ancient war, Edinburgh is undoubtedly the strongest, most dangerous, and the most difficult to overcome. Edinburgh Castle is built on the top of an extinct volcanic rock at 135 meters above sea level, with one slope and three cliffs. As long as the gate of the castle on the slope is guarded, it is a golden soup. This is also unmatched by other ancient castles. Later, strolling on Princes Street and looking up at the castle, I saw its danger.



The castle has witnessed many wars in Scotland from the 12th century to the 16th century. It has been a military base since the 17th century and is currently owned by the Historic Scotland. There are still troops stationed on the castle. Most of the castle ’s buildings were destroyed in the long-siege siege of the 16th century, but a few buildings survived the siege, the most famous of which was the St. Margaret Chapel built in the early 12th century.



Edinburgh Castle is an important symbol of Edinburgh. The coat of arms of Edinburgh has an image of Edinburgh Castle. During the Edinburgh International Arts Festival in August every year, the famous Military Tattoo (Military Tattoo) is held in front of the castle. Military bands from all over the world have their own characteristics. Of course, the most popular one is Scotland, which is the first appearance. Military bands, bagpipes and kilts are their marks. After the split performance, there will be fireworks and lights.



It is now June, and Edinburgh Castle is already setting up a stand to watch the famous military band's split performance.



From the castle, the straight downhill road directly opposite the gate is Royal Mile Avenue, which starts from the east slope of Edinburgh Castle and extends east along the ridge to the Holy Cross Palace, which is about one mile in length, so People call it the "Royal Mile". This royal avenue is lined with churches, the Scottish Parliament Hall, and the Supreme Court of Scotland, which symbolize power and prestige. The "Royal Mile" has also become a classic symbol of Edinburgh.



The Royal Mile is divided into four sections. A small slope in front of the castle is called Castlehill, and the Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre is here. The next short paragraph is called Lawnmarket. The intersection that crossed George IV Bridge Street became known as High Street. Finally, the section after the St. Mary Street intersection is called the Canongate. The pedestrians are gradually sparse, and the surroundings are mostly medieval buildings. The end of the road is the Palace of Holy Cross



The Royal Mile is the central avenue of Edinburgh ’s old town, and the lanes on both sides are staggered to form the skeleton of the old city. The ground paved with cobblestones has long been polished and shiny, showing the vicissitudes of time. The buildings along the avenue are simple and magnificent, full of strong historical atmosphere.



The Royal Mile is well worth strolling over and savoring the long history of Scottish history and culture. The tour guide urged to move forward quickly, and the name of the very conspicuous and high clock tower at the intersection of the castle was not clear.



The square before the St. Giles Cathedral came to a halt. Standing on the Royal Mile, this church is the main church in Edinburgh and the national church in Scotland. Originally built in 1120, the church was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1385. The top of the church's tower is modeled after the Scottish crown, reflecting its premier status in Scotland.



St Giles Church is the center of power of the Christian Presbyterian Church in Christianity and is generally considered the "mother church" of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The history of the church reflects the unique secular and religious life of the Scots and the history of the development and evolution of Catholicism in Scotland in the 16th century. There is a statue of Duke of Buckingham in front of the church.



There is a chapel of the Knights of Scotland added in the 20th century. The neo-Gothic ceiling and the carvings on the decorative walls are very beautiful and dignified. The church can enter for free, and after seeing the tour guide, we urged us to get on the bus and leave.



Take some street scenes in haste. Not far from St Giles Church is a statue of David Hume (also translated as David Hume). David Hume was born in Edinburgh on April 26, 1711, and died on August 25, 1776. He is a Scottish philosopher, and John Locke (John Locke) and George Berkeley (George Berkeley) and called the three major British empiricists. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of the Scottish Enlightenment and Western philosophy.



On the Royal Mile, the quaint shops and bars on both sides are mostly made of stone. You can sit in the restaurant or bar with a good atmosphere, and you can also choose gifts from Scotland.



The decoration of this street sign is very gorgeous, and the pattern is also very complicated. I wonder what the meaning is? The English "BOSWELLS COURT" on the lintel of the card is translated as "Boswells Court". The strange thing is that the outside of the door is very ordinary, and the "court" is not seen at all.



The small flower stands in front of the windows of some ancient buildings are extremely elegantly arranged, which adds a lot of interest to the Royal Mile.



There are some warriors dressed in the Middle Ages on the street, attracting some tourists to go and take pictures with them.



The sounds of melodious Scottish bagpipes came and saw a few street performers in Scottish skirts playing along the street, as if reminding tourists to be in the old center of Scotland.



Tourists also like to take pictures with these bagpipe players, and record this moment full of Scottish style. The twins are very cute.



The most important parts of Edinburgh are concentrated on the Royal Mile, the west is the proud Edinburgh Castle, and the east is the Holy Cross Palace (also known as the Holyrood Palace, The Palace of Holyroodhouse). After a quick tour on the west side of Edinburgh Castle and Royal Mile on June 16, 2014, he came to Holyrood Palace.



Holyrood Palace is still the royal residence where the Queen came to Scotland. Holyrood Palace was built by James V in 1498. Holyrood Palace's predecessor was Holy Rood Abbey, and there are still some remains in the palace.



Holyrood Palace is named after the Holy Cross Abbey. It is said that in the 12th century, David I hunted here and encountered a wild deer attack. On the occasion of a thousand times, a golden holy cross appeared in front of him, making him a danger. , So he ordered the construction of the Holy Cross Monastery here. In 1500, King James IV of Scotland changed the monastery room to the royal palace. Since then, the Royal Palace of Scotland has moved from Edinburgh Castle. Today, Queen Elizabeth II of England comes here every summer.



The Holy Cross Abbey still exists, relying heavily on the royal palace, it has only a ruin than the bright palace (many castles and churches in England were destroyed in the battle of England and Scotland), the window of the banquet hall is The broken arcade of the monastery, where you can feel the vicissitudes of history. It is said that the monastery has been restored many times, but each time it is abandoned halfway. Perhaps the queen hopes that it exists in such a natural appearance, and tells history at any time. The panoramic view of Holyrood Palace and some nearby sceneries can be seen on Calton Hill.



The left side of this photo is the Holy Cross Abbey with only ruins connected to Holyrood Palace. The monastery remains, the predecessor of the Palace of the Holy Cross, was built by James V in the 12th century. After more than 800 years, it has witnessed many historical events in Scotland: weddings, baptisms, coronations, funerals ... It was rebuilt in 1758, and then a hurricane collapsed the stone roof and once again turned into ruins. The destiny is connected.



There have been many events in the history of Holyrood Palace, the most famous of which is Queen Mary of Scotland. Queen Mary is known as the most beautiful woman at that time. She lost her throne in the mutiny shortly after her third marriage and finally conspired to conquer the throne Was executed.



Mary Stuart (1542 ~ 1587), ascended the Queen of Scotland a week after being born, and married French Francis in 1552. In 1560, Francis passed away and returned to Scotland for pro-government the following year. Faith in Catholicism, dissatisfaction with the Scottish nobility and Calvinists. Was deposed in 1567, fled to England the following year, after the Spanish king colluded with the Catholic forces of England, plot to support her to seize the throne of England. After the incident leaked, she was executed by Queen Elizabeth I.

The trees and flowers on the side of the palace dress up beautifully, creating an ancient and peaceful atmosphere.



The tragedy of Queen Mary's life was written in the book "Queen Mary of Scotland", and a film of the same name was also made according to the novel. People choose to take pictures from different angles in the square outside the palace.



In the middle of Holyrood Palace Square, a tower sculpture artwork stands.



The sculpture on the tower is very exquisite, and every story should be described, but unfortunately no relevant information has been found.



The roof of Holyrood Palace is crown-shaped, with a large chronograph bell inlaid under the crown.



The appearance of the Holy Cross Palace is not public, enter the gate, the atrium is a square patio, surrounded by small gray buildings. Pushing open the door at the end of the corridor, stepping up the stairs, from the waiting room, parlor, dining room, banquet room to the study, bedroom, and finally to the Queen Mary's tower, the inner luxury is amazing. Relief on the roof, tapestries on the walls, portraits of kings, wooden furniture, silver tableware, each is an art treasure. Unfortunately, we were not able to enter the tour.



The royal emblem is sculpted on the main entrance of Holyrood Palace. The emblems of the British royal family are generally left lions and right horses. I do n’t know why there are horses on both sides. The golden iron on the door side light also shone in the shadows.



The gate outside the Palace Square of Holyrood is the passage to the palace in the past. The baroque conical spire is full of fairy tale colors.



When the Queen of England comes to live here, the royal palace will hang the royal flag and refuse to visit. Holyrood Palace is usually more like a park with walls but no guards, and the guards seem to be very laid back.



The small and exquisite house outside the palace is full of "British taste", and it is also a charming scenery.



Next to Holyrood Palace is Holyrood Park, a royal park covering an area of ​​263 hectares. It used to be a hunting ground for the kings of Scotland. The landscape in the garden is diverse, with small cliffs, high swamps and small lakes. It is a 10-minute walk from Holyrood Palace to the foot of the mountain. There are also two swan lakes in the natural park. The nearest one is only a fifteen-minute walk from Holyrood Palace.



The park contains a variety of terrain, and also has some rare plants and insects, ideal for walking or outdoor sports. Many tourists love climbing here to see the whole picture of Edinburgh. If you do n’t want to climb the mountain, you can also enjoy the natural scenery at the foot of the mountain. It was also one of the shooting locations of the movie "One Day" starring Anne Hathaway. Behind the park is an extinct volcano like a lion. The summit is 251 meters high and is called Arthur's Seat. Another famous landscape is the Salisbury cliff.



Opposite Holyrood Palace is the Scottish Parliament Building. In May 1997, Scotland established a national parliament as one of the Commonwealth, and its capital was set in Edinburgh. After a year of preparations, an international competition for the selection of architects for the new parliament building was held in April 1998. Finally, the late Architect of Catalonia, Spain, Anric Mirayes, won. Anlik Mirayes is a genius architect with amazing creativity, but unfortunately died young. The Scottish Parliament Building is one of his legacy, and a project he paid a lot of attention to. The total construction area of ​​the project is 18,550 square meters, including four four- to five-story towers, a press center and a conference center, which can accommodate 1,200 people.



The appearance of the Scottish Parliament Building is not at all impressive. It feels a little weird. The top of the building is only four to five floors, and outside the building are some bamboo-shaped brackets. Anrik Mirayes has the ability to grasp the form beyond ordinary people. It is the most fully reflected in the Scottish Parliament building project. He has a unique and profound cultural background in Catalonia, and in a wonderful way Naturally revealed on his building.

The building started work in June 1999, and members of the Scottish Parliament did not hold their first debate there until September 7, 2004. This building cost almost 500 million pounds,



The person who praised the design of Anrik Mirayes said: He reduced the volume of a complex building into seven small buildings, echoing the old buildings near the base in terms of scale and volume. The exterior space enclosed by this complex, including the civic plaza enclosed by the Queen's Palace in the east, faces the beautiful Arthur Volcano in the south. The Scottish Parliament building made of stone, stainless steel and oak wanted to make itself a model of "democratic democracy", but the building was less than a year old and fell into a sea of ​​public debate. It was once ranked as the fourth place in the "Uglyest Building in Britain" in a public opinion poll. But now it has become one of the important local tourist attractions.



Today, the civic square between the Scottish Parliament Building and Holyrood Palace is very quiet, and these bicycle-carrying carriages are also cold and cold. Their strange shape is very harmonious with the shape of the Parliament Building.

On the morning of June 16, 2014, after visiting the Holyrood Palace, after having lunch in a Chinese restaurant on the east side of the famous Princes Street in Edinburgh, the tour guide announced free afternoon activities, mainly shopping on Princes Street. Walking out of the restaurant, I saw a tall round tower on the top of the hill not far away. Where does shopping take half a day? Several group members decided to go to the top of the hill and climb to the top, and then you can definitely see the scenery of Edinburgh.





The first thing I saw after going up the mountain was the "Nelson Monument". The Nelson Monument, 32 meters high, was built from 1807 to 1815 to commemorate Admiral Nelson. The shape is like an old-fashioned binoculars, pointing directly at the sky. Many people think that this is more a monument than a monument. Every day at 1pm when the Edinburgh Castle fires, the small ball at the spire of the Nelson Monument will drop.



The "Nelson Monument" has some commemorative displays in memory of Nelson. This statue of Nelson is very special. Horatio Nelson is the greatest naval general in British history. In 1805, led the Royal Fleet and the French and Western combined fleets to fight near the Cape of Trafalgar. The British fleet did not have the strength. Under the command of Nelson, he defeated the French and Western combined fleets in one fell swoop and hit Napoleon. British maritime hegemony, Nelson also sacrificed his life for the country in this naval battle. The officers and soldiers of the fleet grieved the death of the general, and sewed two black belts on the back of the hat to show their condolences.



Not far from the "Nelson Monument", this building is very eye-catching. This is an unfinished antique Greek Parthenon temple building. It is said that the title of "Northern Athens" in Edinburgh comes from here. A dozen exquisite stone pillars set off against the sky are extremely tall and majestic. This is a national memorial to commemorate the Scottish soldiers who fought bravely against the French army of Napoleon.



The National Memorial started construction in 1826. Due to the use of high-quality materials, there was little money left, and it was forced to stop construction by 1829. Locals say that Glasgow is willing to pay, but Edinburgh is too proud to accept the goodwill of other cities. Therefore, the nickname of the memorial hall is "Shame of Edinburgh" or "Stupidity of Edinburgh".



There is also a striking dome on Calton Hill, the Edinburgh City Observatory. The Edinburgh City Observatory, also known as Calton Hill Observatory, was built in 1788. In 1812, the Observatory was transferred to the Edinburgh Astronomical Agency.



In the late 19th century, the ownership of the observatory was changed from the British state to the city of Edinburgh, and the observatory was renamed the city observatory. The Edinburgh City Government has the opportunity to redevelop the observatory, but it has not yet opened to the public.



There is a cannon left by the Nelson era on the lawn below the observatory. Somehow the muzzle points to a pavilion in the distance. The wall of the municipal observatory is the Calton Hill Castle.



This is the Dugeld Stewart Memorial Pavilion. The shape of several stone columns with a dome is very beautiful. The pavilion is modeled after the Lechegrad music memorial pavilion in Athens, Greece, and is a building commemorating Scottish philosopher Dugold Stewart (1753–1828). Dugold Stewart was a professor at the University of Edinburgh and taught moral philosophy from 1786 until his death.



There are many historic and elegant buildings scattered on Calton Hill, which is also the commanding height of Edinburgh. No information was found on the Calton Hill Castle on the side of the observatory. The size of this castle is not large. Judging from the mottled exterior walls and the traces of reconstruction after the collapse, it should be some time.



On Calton Hill, from the top, Edinburgh has a panoramic view. Looking west, Edinburgh Castle stands tall in the distance, guarding the quiet town, and the scenery is very beautiful.





Here you can see the most prosperous street in Edinburgh-Princes Street. Princes Street divides Edinburgh into two old and new cities, with the new city to the north and the old city to the south. There is a long ravine between the new and old cities, with distinct natural barriers. Prince Street is known as "the best road in the world". The total length is only one mile, and many gorgeous modern shops are gathered along this road. On the south side is a verdant green, and on the east end is the Prince Street Garden.





There is a ditch on the side of Prince Street, which was thought to be a river at first, and then it was known that it was a green belt of the old city and Prince Street. There was a bridge over the ditch, and our coach came from the old city at the end of the bridge.



Edinburgh Old Town (Lowland Scots: Auld Toun, also known as Edinburgh Old Town) refers to the part of the old town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The city has retained many European medieval and Scottish Reform Movement buildings.



The buildings in Edinburgh's entire city are made of stone. The church steeple and other towers, together with the beautifully arranged classical and neoclassical buildings, constitute a special landscape in the city and extend to the new city. Among. In the old city, several old buildings from the end of the 19th century have been preserved to this day.



The history of Edinburgh can be traced back to at least the Roman Empire. At that time, the strikers of the Roman army arrived in this area and settled down. After the decline of the Roman Empire, Britain became an Anglo-Saxon world, forming a situation of strife among the nations. One of the northern countries is Northumbria. King Edwin (Edwin 617-632 reigns) led troops to occupy the land of Edinburgh and built a fortress on the mountain. The name of Edinburgh is "Love" Devin ’s city evolved.



Edinburgh has two heights, one is Edinburgh Castle built on extinct volcanic rock, and the other is Carlton Hill. On Calton Hill, you can see the old and new cities of Edinburgh. When it's sunny, Linfeng ascends to the horizon. On cloudy days, you can also feel the simplicity and elegance of Scotland, and the vigorousness and vastness of the bones. Looking east, you can see the new city, and the blue Atlantic Ocean and Forth Bay in the distance also have a panoramic view.



In fact, the new city has a history of more than 200 years. It was built in several stages from 1765 to 1850, but it is still called the new city, and many original neoclassical buildings are still preserved in the city.



The old city of Edinburgh and the new city form an overall effect, but there is a sharp contrast between the irregular medieval old city and the geometrically designed new city. In 1995, the old city and the new city were jointly selected by the United Nations Educational Science and Cultural Organization. Listed as a World Heritage Site.



New Town (New Town) is the city centre of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The headquarters of the Scottish government and the Scottish Parliament building are in the New Town near Calton Hill. The New City of Edinburgh is considered a masterpiece of urban planning. These buildings are not in a modern style in the general sense, fully retaining the traditions of Scotland, and they are very harmonious with the old city. No wonder they will be listed as a World Heritage Site.



The beauty of Edinburgh is a kind of publicity and connotation beauty, you can appreciate it from different angles. Sitting on the hillside of Carlton, it seems that you can breathe the air from the ancient and modern sky at the same time. As the capital of Scotland, it has no wide streets, no oversized squares, and no skyscrapers. The Scots have very carefully preserved the history and characteristics of the city. Even when building a new city, they have been careful not to destroy its architectural atmosphere, which has achieved the perfection of Edinburgh.



There is a cemetery under the mountain, the tombstones are sparse, and it is assumed that some celebrities are buried.



Calton Hill is also a great place to overlook Holyrood Palace and Holyrood Park.





Not only can you climb to the top of the Carlton Hill, but the scenery itself is also excellent. It is the favorite leisure place for people in Edinburgh. In windy and sunny weather like today, you can always see the locals coming to Calton Hill in groups, picnicking and sunbathing on the lawn.





The National Memorial, which has never been completed, although it looks like a ruin, the grass nearby is a very popular place for people to visit. The girl reading a book while sunbathing in the grass shows Edinburgh's rich cultural atmosphere.



On the steps of the National Memorial Hall, a group of people held a sign in hand, and some people were filming as if they were shooting a TV movie. The English guess from the nameplate is probably related to the referendum on whether Scotland will be independent on September 18, 2014.



Calton Hill is a good place to take a panoramic view of Edinburgh and the best place to take a night view of Edinburgh. It is said that many photography enthusiasts will shoot the night view of Edinburgh when the tripod is waiting for the dark light in the Caton Hill about 40 minutes before sunset at night. The lighted Edinburgh Castle and Princes Street are very beautiful.

We cannot stay on the mountain for long, and keep looking back when we go down. I felt very sorry if I didn't climb Calton Hill in Edinburgh.





Prince Street is known as "the best road in the world". The total length is only 1.5 kilometers, and many gorgeous modern shops on the north side are gathered along this road. On the south side is a verdant green, and on the east end is the Prince Street Garden. After descending from Calton Hill, slowly walk east from the west end of the street. The first building I saw was Edinburgh City Hall.



In front of the city hall there is a statue of the Duke of Wellington riding a horse. The Duke of Wellington was a famous strategist and politician in the early nineteenth century and was called "the conqueror of the world conqueror" by the British. He has won the ranks of marshals from the six countries of the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Spanish Empire, the Portuguese Empire, and the Dutch Colonial Empire. In 2002, the British BBC held a survey called "The Greatest 100 Britons". As a result, Wellington ranked 15th.



In the stone sill in front of the gate of the city hall, there is such an exquisite clock, which is marked with the production made in 1809, and it must be of special significance to be placed here.



The most striking building on Prince Street is the Scott Memorial Tower that stands in the garden on the street. Sir Walter Scott is a famous British historical novelist and poet. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and suffered from polio since childhood. After graduating from the Faculty of Law at the University of Edinburgh, he served as deputy sheriff. His poetry in the background of Scotland is very famous. After Byron appeared, he realized that he could not surpass and switched to writing historical novels, and finally became the originator of English historical literature. I have read some of his masterpieces of historical novels, and the most impressive one is "Evanhoe", so he is no stranger to the name Scott.



The Scott Memorial Tower was completed in 1844 and officially opened on August 15, 1846. It is quietly located in the garden of Princes Street in Edinburgh, opposite Princes Street and Janus Department Store, close to Waverley Station. The memorial tower is 61.11 meters high, and adopts the Victorian Gothic architecture style. The four small minarets guard the central tower. The four corners of the tower are all arches. The memorial tower is dark brown. This is because the building material used is local sandstone, which has become this color after years of wind and rain erosion.



Scott's works include 7 long narrative poems, 27 historical novels, some medium and short stories, and historical works and biographies. His historical novels are magnificent, magnificent, and magnificently, reflecting the contradictions and conflicts in the major turning moments in the history of England, Scotland, and Europe. In his writings, historical events are not boring, and they are always organically combined with the twists and turns of the characters in the story, and are regarded as the founders of historical novels. Famous writers such as Dickens and Stevenson in Britain, Hugo in France, Balzac and Dumas, Pushkin in Russia, Manzoni in Italy and Cooper in the United States have all been deeply influenced by Scott. There is a statue of Scott in the garden outside the memorial tower, as if still silently watching the course of history.



There is also a standing white marble statue in the center of the tower. He is wearing a robe and lying next to his pet dog. The 64 protagonists in his works are all carved into sculptures surrounding the tower. The memorial tower has become one of Edinburgh's most important tourist attractions. Visitors can use narrow steps to reach a series of observation platforms on the spire, overlooking Edinburgh city centre and surrounding scenery. It is said that climbing the highest observation deck requires climbing 287 steps, and those who climb up can also receive commemorative certificates.



Princes Street is the most prosperous street in Edinburgh. There are many shops, and many gorgeous modern shops are gathered along this road. Princes Street divides Edinburgh into two old and new cities, a new city to the north, and an old city to the south. There is a long valley between the new and old cities, with distinct natural barriers.



The shops on Prince Street are mainly concentrated in the north, and to the south is a park. Most of the park is in a valley with bridges connecting the old city and the new city at several places. There are no rivers in the valley and all are green spaces.



Princes Street is not only Edinburgh ’s busiest commercial avenue, but also a main line of traffic. The railway station is in this valley. The railway is only open here, and the rest are under the green areas of the valley.





The weather is fine today, and many people sit on the lawn to bask in the sun. The lifestyle of the people of Edinburgh is very leisurely



The architecture of Edinburgh New Town is not a modern high-rise building that most people imagine, but is full of neoclassical styles since the 18th century. From this perspective, the New Town feels more beautiful.



The dark Scott Tower in the Prince ’s Garden is always the most striking,



The old city is on the other side of the valley, and the terrain is higher. Looking up makes people feel that the various classical buildings are dense and dense.





The prosperity and modernity of Princes Street, the peace and charming of Princes Park, give people visiting here a pleasant civilization to enjoy. The urban area of ​​Edinburgh is divided into two parts by the "Prince Street Park" green space, and the south is the old city, built in 1329. Wandering on the garden road beside Prince Street, the old town is very conspicuous due to its high terrain, and its quaint scenery is overwhelming.



In the 7th century, Northumberland, a country established by the Anglo-Saxons in northern England, conquered the area and changed the area to English with the name of their King Edin. Edinburgh means Edinburgh ’s castle.



The axis street of the old town is the Royal Mile, starting from the castle at the west end, Holyrood Palace (Holy Cross Palace) at the east end. Like a fishbone, the castle looks like a fish head. In the old town, many buildings from the European Middle Ages and the Scottish Reform Movement were preserved, and medieval fortresses were scattered.



In this piece of architecture in the Old Town, the white walls are outlined by red lines, which looks simple and beautiful. The cantilevered shoulders of the crane in the upper right corner and the stands that are being built to watch the famous military band's split performance show that they are not far from Edinburgh Castle.



On the Garden Avenue on Princes Street, you can see the Edinburgh Castle on Castle Hill very clearly. The castle was first built in the 6th century. It is a symbol of Edinburgh and even the spirit of Scotland, and overlooks the city of Edinburgh. Queen Margaret died here in 1093, and Edinburgh Castle has since become an important royal residence and national administrative center. It continued to be one of the important royal castles in the UK in the Middle Ages, and was built until the Holyrood Palace in the early 16th century. Replaced Edinburgh Castle as the main residence of the royal family, but Edinburgh Castle is still an important symbol of Scotland. Looking at the old city on Princes Street, the ancient buildings swell upwards, until the highest castle in Edin is perfectly closed, forming a beautiful and scattered picture.





Walking in the gardens of Princes Street, from time to time was moved by the sound of the melodious Scottish bagpipes. The players wearing Scottish plaid skirts on the roadside are very dedicated. They use a straight posture and a focused expression to play, so that tourists on the streets of ancient Edinburgh seem to be in the medieval city streets. .



Bagpipe is an ancient folk musical instrument, also known as wind bag tube. It is said that it originated in the Sumer region of the two river basins of ancient West Asia and spread to ancient Rome in the first century AD. The Roman army invaded Great Britain and spread to Scotland. Later became a popular national musical instrument in Europe. It is said that the bagpipe is a very difficult instrument to play. Only one of the 500 bagpipe players will be a bagpipe player. Now, when it comes to bagpipes, everyone will naturally think of Scotland. On Princes Street, the piper and the melodious music in the background of the old city of Edinburgh make people feel the charm of Scotland more deeply.



Cross the bridge from Princes Garden to the Scottish Gallery. The gallery is a bird cage design. There are really many unknown birds around the gallery. A collection of masterpieces of paintings from different schools of various periods: Renaissance, Rome, Impressionism, and Raphaelism are all included, and the basement gallery is mainly based on local Scottish art. The square outside the gallery is a good place for people to relax.



An avenue on the side of the Scottish gallery leads to the old city.



The steeple of the medieval buildings in the old city on the slope is straight into the sky, making people appreciate the precipitation and inheritance of the ancient Scottish culture.



There is a statue of a horse-riding soldier on the street facing the Prince's Garden, which was built to commemorate the officers and soldiers who died in the Boer War in 1899-1902.



Interestingly, a seagull flew over the knight with the old city in the background, as if it constituted a picture against war and a declaration of peace.



Prince Street North is a new city that began to form and develop in the 18th century and is the busiest commercial avenue. The whole street is full of shopping stores, world-famous department stores and bookstores, and there are hundreds of famous brands in shopping malls.

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